Appendix II

Bell's Memorandum on the Boundaries of Tamankaduwa July 28/30. 1903

File S.G.O. G/C.P. 620

(Furnished by request ofthe GA.N.C.P.)

I. Boundary between Tamankaduwa (North Central Province) and the Matale Distnct(CentralProuince)

The boundary between the Meda Pattuwa of Tamankaduwa and the Laggala Pallesiya Pattuwaofthe Matale Districthasbeen definitely settled.

An error in the true boundary (whereby a strip of some miles of country lying between Konduruwa Kanda, Wasgomuwa Oya and gala, and the Mahaveliganga, would have been lost to the North Central Province) was discovered by me in 1901, when on circuit in that corner of Tamankaduwa. This error was immediately brought to the notice of the Government Agent North Central Province . As a result, the boundary was examined last year by the GovernmentAgent, North Central Province, and the Assistant GovernmentAgent of Matale jointly, and the strip of country, wrongly cut off from Tamankaduwa,, readily restored to the North Central Province on the admission of the Matale DistrictVEagers.

II. Boundary between Tamankaduwa and the Eastern Province

The " bone of contention " is the Egoda Pattuwa, or the Eastern most division of Tamankaduwa on the further side (Egoda) ofthe Mahaveliganga.

The question has been argued:

(i) historically, (ii) ethnologically, (iii) on administrative grounds (Fiscal, Judicial and Registration) (iv) from the point ofthe desire and convenience ofthe inhabitants; (v) as regards " natural boundary ".

On all grounds the rightswith the North Central Province.

The f ull and just arguments of the late Sir J. F. Disckson that past master in Kandyan lore and of Mr. Booth, the present Govellunent Agent, North Central Province, are incontrovertible. The physical question of "Natural boundary ", whether at the Mahaveliganga or elsewhere ought only to be raised Caeteris Paribas. But the other considerations are not equal; not nearly equal. The indivisability of Tamankaduwa as a whole, and its Kandyan Kingship with Nuwarakalaviya and therefore the sound constitution of North Central Province as it has existed for thirtyyears (since 1873) should remain inviolate.

(i) Historical The Egoda Pattuwa has ever been (save for the one year 1869 1870) integral partofTamankaduwasince Kandyan times. Duringthe rule of the Kandyan kings and up to 1815 when that Kingdom fell to the British Government, Tamankaduwa, like Nuwarakalaviya, was a separate Dissavani of the Kandyan Kingdom, under its own Dissawe and with its own distinguishing Kodiya, or flag, as carried in the Perahera at kandy.

Proofas to thisisoverwhelming; Sir J. F. Dickson quoted aMap of 1811, and several Kandyan Sittu . Iffurier evidence is wanted reference may be made to Captain Schneider's Map62 and to countless other Ola documents (Lawrie's Gazetteer, &c.)

(in) Ethz ical The inhabitants of Egoda Pattuwa are entirely distinct from those of the Eastern Province . They have neither part nor lot with them . There is no "affinity" whatsoever,pace Mr. Haughton's rash assertion contra.

The non Muslim viZagers (the scattered Vedda hamlets of KDsgaha Ulpota, Damane Ulpota, KEhobalewa,, Galmaduwa, Ginidamane, Belanawala, Kandakadu, and Ilandamodu, excepted) are for the most part a hybrid people hnlfTamil, half Vedda, with a dash, more or leas, of Sinhalese blood intermixed here and there. Witness the villages, Yaliure, Horivila, Karapola, Hewanpitiya, and MutugaNa. Mannampitiya is inhabited by descendants of aliens, originally Roman Catholics (as proved by existing relics of the past), who were either planted, or migrated, here, in the seventeenthcenturytraditionally.

The moors of Egoda Pattuwa (located atAlinchipotana, Katuwanvila, Kankadu, Tirikonamodara and Mavila) have merely overflowed across the river from the Moorvillagesofthe MedaPattuwa. Theyareadegenerate class; and(as recorded by J. F. Dickson) " totally different from the Moormen ofthe sea board", who do not associate withthem63

(iu)Administrativegrounds From not inconsiderable experience of Tamankaduwa in recentyears, I can confirm Mr. Booth's assertion that much confusion and frequent difficulties must inevitably arise from anytransfer ofthe Egoda Pattuwa to the admin istration of another Province .

(iv) (a)Desire, and (b) Corwenienceofinhabitants:

(a) Mr. Haughton paid a hasty visit to some of the river side villages of the Egoda Pattuwa in the course of a Circuit from the Eastern Pmvince last year.

He states:" The people in all the villages asked me to have them attached to the Eastern Province " . This may well be true . Let the Government Agent of the Northern Province, or the Government Agent of Central Province, make a similar sudden descent on these villagers. They will as thoughtlessly consent, when the suggestion is made to them, to be annexed to either Province. As a fact, the Egoda Pattuwa people are benighted beings, willing to assent to anything, provided it appears at the moment plausible and perchance turn to some possible advantage.

All the villages ofthe Egoda Pattuwa (Vedda hamlets excluded) lie near the right bank of the Mahaveliganga, within easy distance of Topa wewa, the headquarters ofthe Revenue Officer of Tamankaduwa: from Onegama, the nearest village eastaward across the Province boundary they are separated by 15 to 20 miles of wild country only inhabited by a few Veddas. The villagers are prevented from crossing the Mahaveliganga only during flood times. The remedyis simple. The Government should give the trees free for ferryboats (half a dozen at most); the people will gladly construct the boats themselves.

Too much stress has been laid on the temporary inconvenience to the Egoda Pattuwa Villagers of being flood bound.

The fair test to apply as regards desire and convenience is this:

" Have the villagers of the Egoda Pattuwa ever petitioned the Government Agent of the Eastern Province, or the Government Agent of the North Central Province or the Government itself, expressing dissatisfaction with theirpresentlotasfaras refines toconnection withAnurrXura, and desiringto be administered from Batticaloa ? The answer is in the negative.

Qua arguments (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), therefore, Egoda Pattuwa should be left alone under its present regime .

(v) Natural Boundary The sweeping suggestion that the Mahaveliganga should be made the natural boundary emanated from the Superintendent of Topographical Surveys, backed by the Surveyor General.

This airy way of disposing of territory, ex cathedra, without troubling to visitthe spot, so as tojudge bypersonalobservation (I believe I amrightin stating that no European Official except the Archaeological Commissioner has followed the boundary of the country in dispute ) could with equal, if not more, advantage be applied, topographically, to rounding offother Provinces, purely according to natural boundaries.

Take for instance the Inamalawa Korale (See X and the bluepencil line in the tracing annexed)64 of the Central Province. This Korale runs a very awkward wedge into the North Central Province; there is actual " affinity " between the people ofthat Korale and the people of Matombuwa Korale in the North Central Province; the Mirisgoni oya is the " natural boundary ". Yet the GovernmentAgent ofthe Central Province would find ample and sound reasons f or declining to part with the bamalawa Korale .

I have already furnished the Government Agent, North Central Province, with reliable information gathered on the spot in 1897 as to the ancient boundary between Tamankaduwa and.the Eastern Province, from the Mahaveliganga as f ar as Makuppe (See A C .'s letter No. 646 of July 18/20,1903 ) .

I have no hesitation in recommending that that line be taken as the basis f or a final settlement to be arranged between the GovernmentAgents ofthe Eastern and North Central Provinces after meeting and conferring on the spot.

The only modification desirable is to run the line from the Mahaveliganga (across Karapolakanda) to Kandegamakanda, and thence along the Maduru oya, as far as its sharp trend Eastwards. Thence, the line Northwards can run approximately' as it is now, or be made to follow the course of any convenient tributaries to the Maduru oya, or the Mu Aru.

The Maduru oya is undoubtedlythe best " natural boundary " to the East.

By running the South South East boundary of Tamankaduwa from the Mahaveliganga until it strikes Kandegamakanda, Tamankaduwawill recover a small patch of country at its South East corner, from the Eastern Province, giving in exchange all the country to the East ofthe Maduru oya, which it now owns.

The red pencil line in the tracing65 shows the appromunate line of boundary, which the GovernmentAgents ofthe two Province can best definitely settle on the spot.

H. C. P. BELL,

A C.

Topa vowa,

July 28/30, 1903