Appendix III

Territorial and Administrative Boundaries

R.L. Brohier

(This article appears as Chapter II in the book I find Maps and Sunreys, Vol. I)

(1) In f We Earlier CenSs of SS7hiew Kingship

Movement of population as a result of changes in the political and administrative delimitation of ancient Ceylon, has doubtless exerted a great influence on the land systan. There is very little epigraphic or literary evidence to throw light on the evolutionary f eatures of the systern of division into terntories and the "historical boundary '. the details from otherindigenous sources are equally meagre and brief largely due to the f act that the old historians of Ceylon were men to whom Sly aflhirs of this nature held little interest.

There is consequently very little more information about the ancient territorial limits than the terse authentic statementoftheMahamrrsthatin the reign of Pandukabhaya, Circa 504 BLOC., Ceylon was resolved into three geographical divisions and that the Islandwas severed into realms ortemtories.66

AKadairnpot, or "boundary book"67 supplements thisinformationbya statementthatthethree realms meetatapointwhere byee PirW (2yajoined the MahEi Garga lhepointofoontacthasbeenidentfiedasbeingin thevicinity of Katug~L Adarnf s Puck (Sarnantakuta PatvaW, was also Xed oomrrsn toanthedivrsions.68

The ChnniclecalledPsuanatiavaliSahatuPda, or'13oundaIy book ofthe Ravana Sings', is alleged to have described an even eariierform of political division. this book is believed to have been lost.69  The oldest available information ortmdition is therefore limited to the realms called Ruhunu, Maya and Rajarata.

TheMabaveliGanga, uptoitsmouthnearTrincomalie, andthe YwluGanga from its source in Adam's Peak to Kalutara, formed one boundary of Maya Division. The sea from Kalutara to the mouth of the Deduru Oya near Chilaw, another boundary, and the Deduru Oya a third boundary. The central portion of this Province was called Malaya (mountainous). This Division was always accepted as an appurtenance ofthe Rajarata, literally 'Xing's Division ", which included all the country to the north ofthe Deduru Oya and west ofthe Mahaveli Ganga. In a later period, when the Rajarata became the established (Pihiti) seat of royalty, it came to be also called the Pihiti division. The limits ofthese realms varied during the centuries which followed according to the might of the King's arms.69

The origin of the village (gama) is also tersely preserved in the literature of the same period, and the Mahavarnsa mentions that the division of the Island into realms was followed by an organized division ofthe habitatto a patriarchal village system or family settlement.70 Even earlier writings indicate that the boundary of every village was fixed (defined), and the "whole island was caused to be divided into fields and gardens".

The nucleated village system brought to Ceylon by the Aryan speaking Colonization led to the growth of co operative life and division of labour, and the formation of village committees among them. Authorities show that each settlement was managed by a council of elders of the family, guided by the patriarchcalledgarnarala,gamahe, and the like, accordingto the class of each. The division termed Disavany, Korale, Pattu, &c., were brought into usage in succeeding ages to group the villages, as urban life and traditional systems of administration developed. In the broader elemental sense, the principal sub divisions were called rata71. The regions under the immediate supervision of theKingsweIe calledRati andthosedistrictsunderthe ChieftainsJanapada.72 When cities and towns grew from the "gama" organizations they came to be termed Nagara and the ports by the term Patuna . .

ThevWwere classified asOla,gx andNiyarWarn, thatis, srnallvillages and large villages, and further desciDed asPasalgam: villages forming suburbs of towns;Pa*uwm: coastalvillages;~am: villagesinthejwe;Idamgam: villages inside a large extent of cultivated land; andIppangam: marshy villages. There were alsoAnabim: pasture grounds;DadAbim: game presenes; Vanan—:: forests.

Little material change seems to have occurred in the primary boundaries until the close of the 12th century, and even less, if at all, in the boundaries or subordinate delimitations until a very much later period. Even in the Maritime belt which subsequently, and for a considerable length time, was under foreign occupation, the existing minor divisions were incorporated in successive administrations with the retention of established terms such as Disavany, Korale and Pal

During the troubled times ofthe mid thirienth century, fiequent shifts of the seat ofGovernmentfrom one spotto another in the low countryplains and the foot hills were necessary. The original r ames ofthe three basic territories hence lost their significance and were no longer applicable to recognized administrative units. Eventually, with a Government established at Kotte, the Island was once again regionallypartitioned by virtue of possession forpolitical purposes into three territories. The most important was the Kingdom of Kotte which extended from the Kala Oya in the north west to the Balave Ganga in the South, and from the foot hills to the sea. The central highlands divided into five Disavanys which collectively formed a sub kingdom, was the second territory. It was called Kanda uda pas rata, subsequently shortened to Kanda and later corrupted to Kandy. The third territory, composed ofthe northern peninsula along with the surrounding islets and the sea coast up to the island of Mannar, formed the kingdom of Jaffna. The Northern mainland and the north central plains were comprised of a number of lesser subdivisions collectively called the Vanni

The history ofthe Vanni73 up to the British occupation cannot be better summarized than in the word of Tennent:

Of its earlier history no satisfactory record survives, beyond the ascertained fact that after the withdrawal of the Sinhalese sovereigns f rom their northern capitals in the 14th century and the abandonment oftheir deserted country to the Malabars, thelatter, diwniwdanddislzactedinturn, bythe ruin they themselves had made, were broken up into small principalities under semi independent chief, and ofthese the Vanni was one of the last that survived the general decays.74

(ii) Mutation in the Portuguese and Dutch Period

At the end ofthe 16th century there was another change, consequent on the seat of Government being established at Kandy. The central or hilly portion of the Island and an extensive area which lay immediately around it became the Kandyan Kingdom, while a new territorial state was established by PorXgal in the maritime districts . This delimitation is of special interest, as it shows those parts of the Island which were open longest to the influences of Westem ideas on Eastem life and character.

The limits ofthe domain overwhichthe Portuguese first assumedcontrol extended a little further northward but in other respects differed very little f rom the boundaries ofthe earlierkingdom of Kotte. They gradually extended their possessions in Ceylon and broughtJaffna undertheirpower, together with afew scattered dependencies and strongholds alongthe eastern coast. When the Dutch secured a footing in Ceylon by capture of the Fort of Batticaloa in 1863, the Portuguese frontiershad altered by the excision ofthe greater part ofthe seven Korales together with the Three, the Four Korales, and Sabaragamuva, which had been re annexed to the Kandyan kingdom.

With a third nation striving to secure to itself territory in Ceylon, international boundaries were for some years fluid, and altered to the advantage or otherwise ofthe Sinhalese, the Portuguese or the Dutch who were each in a state of war with the others. In November, 1644 atreatywas signed at Goa75 between the two European contestants, and the Portuguese ceded to the Dutch their rights over portions ofthe Seven Korales, Negombo and the territory around it f rom the Maha Oya on the north to a boundary half way between Negombo and Colombo on the south, and all the territory which extended from the Bentota Riverto the Valave Ganga.

Edited to this Point

During an eight year truce promulgated by the Portuguese Dutch treaty, the Sinhalese King pushed out his frontiers to the coastline between the Maha Oya and the Moderagam Aru. Thus, when at the conclusion of the truce, the Dutch expelled the Portuguese and took possession of all their territory. The Sinhalese kingdom extended across the Island with seaboard on the west and east, and two segments ofterritory under the sovereign power ofthe Dutch East India Company lying North and South of itl2.

The Dutch called their entire northern possession the Commandement of Jaffnapatam and divided it for convenience into three Provinces, JsfFnapatam, Mannar and the Vanni retaining the subordinate divisions as of old. Their jurisdiction was confined to the land boundary from the mouth ofthe Kala oya on the south west to the Pankulam Aru, near Kuchchaveli, on the south east. Although the Dutch claimed sovereignty are the Vanni, they admitted that "Obedience cannot be exacted from the Vannias as from others''l3. "The Commandment also included the "dependencies', by which was meant "the island of Mannar, the Pearl Banks, and the islets round about the province of Jaffnapatam"'4.

Itwasinitially considered advisable in the interests ofthe Company, that the province of Jaffnapatam, which included some ofthe subordinate, divisions on the northerly limits ofthe mainland togetherwithsome ofthe adjoining islets should be placed under the immediate jurisdiction of Coromandell6. The delimitation effected as an administrative expedient was abolished in 1694 and the government of the whole of Commandement was entrusted to the Governor of Ceylonl6.

The Dutch territorial possessions which lay offthe frontier of Sinhalese Kingdom, on the south were regionally divided into three, namely, the Fort or Castle of Colombo, the Disavany of Colombo and the Commandement of Galle. The Disavany of Colombo, called Or the ancient Sinhalese form denoting a Province, which was also borrowed by the Portuguese, extended from a distance of a musket shot range from the gates in the outer fortifications of the Castle of Colombo alongthe sea coast to the Maha Oya on the north and the "Alican" or the Bentota River on the south. Landwards the boundary corresponded more or less

12 The artidesofCapitulationbythePortuguese, dated 11th May 1956, exhtedfromBaldeus' Deseription of Ceylonin thefirstVolumeofthe Revised Edition ofthe Legislative Enactment. Acondensed version appearn inJnl. RA. S. (C.B.)Vol.XI, p. 303

13 Instruction from the Governor General and Council of India to the (Duteh) Govemor of Ceylon 16561665. TranslationbySophia Pieters, p. 89

14 Carredive, re named ArnsteHarn, Tamudive, ranamed Layden; Pongeradive (Punkudutivu) re named Middlebulg;Nirrendive Neduntivu)re namedDelA;Neynadive re namedHaarlem:Aneledive(Analativu) renamed Rotterdam and Rennedive aranaitivU) literally ' The Brothers being two islets renamed Hoom andEnkhuyzen".Therewere en addition five urnEzabitated islets. Ibid, p. 84.

15Ibid, p 90

26 MemoirofHendrikZwaardeeroon (1697), p. 3.

with the presentlimits ofthe Hapitigam, Siyane, Hevagam, Rayigam and Pasdun Koraleswith Malvane, Hanvalla andAnguruatota" as frontier stations. It is also extended f urther south and included a part of the Valallaviti Korale with Pitigala as the frontier. The Instructions to the Governor of ceylon rather loosely describes the landward limit as being "so much as we occupy at present and are able to cultivate, or asmuchfurtherasmightbe agreeduponwiththeKandyanKingin the course oftime''l7.

The important j urisdiction over the Castle was vested in the Governor of the Island, and the Province, afterthe oldpractice, in an officertermedDzsaua.

The Commandment of galle began at "Alican" or the Bentota River and extendedto theValave Ganga onthe southor so much further onthe otherside oftheriver asmybe agreedupon(withthe KingofKandy),thelengthalongthe sea coast being 25 miles and the breadthvaryingfrom 8 to 16 miles beingbounded by the King's territoryl8.

Besides these territorial acquisitions there were other strategical positions in the Sinhalese King's territory over which the Dutch exercised control. Although Trincomalie and Batticaloa on the east coast had been left open to the King, there were strict orders for the occupation ofthese forts, in the event of "the King giving offense".. Similarly, the strategical port offPuttalam, which the Portuguese called Calpentyn and the Dutch in due course changed to Kalpitiya, was held for the purpose of examining all departing ships and to prevent any foreign vessel from using the roads. There were also the salt pans strung out between the Valave river and Batticaloa. The instructions declared that "in the event of war these should be immediately secured in order to cut off all supplied of salt for Kandy''l9.

In order to record these delimitations, the instructions proceeded to lay down that "a map of Ceylon should be completed in the most careful manner, with all hills, roads, villages, marsh land, forest, &e., indicated in it as required in a good map'Q°.

The first map which illustrates these international boundaries, with the administrative and geographical conceptions of Ceylon of the Dutch period was published in the decade anterior to 16792'. The boundaries of the Dutch

Insauction from the GovernorGeneral and Coundl of India, 165&1665, p. 17 18 Ibid, p. 55. The distances are stated in Gerrnan miles of l5 to a degree. lY Ibid, p. 14. 20 Ibid, p. 66.

2 1 See rnap Plate 2, Vol II. For an accountofthe Dutdl occupation of Kandy In 1765, seeded Dutch BulEher Union,VolXXI,pp.133 17.191 20

territorial limits remained materiallyunchangedforseveral decades, until atreaty effected with the Kandyan Government in 176622, secured to the Dutch considerable acquisitions alongthe frontier, and a coastal corridor onegawwa 23 in width through the maritime Kandyan settlements.

In Article 2 of this Treaty, the "Emperor of Kandy and the nobles of his Court" acknowledged the Dutch Company as 'lawful and supreme Sovereigns" and relinquished all right and title which they may have f ormerly had pretended to have, "to the territories described earlier, and to the Province of Puttalam Kalpitiya and its dependencies", as also Batticaloa and Trincomalee "and the lands formerly dependent of these places acquired during the hostilities which preceded the Treaty.

Article 3 described the territory ceded over and above the aforesaid. This consisted of "sovereignty over all the sea coasts round the Island" which was hitherto notin possession ofthe Company, namely, "on the west side fmm Kayrnal24 to the district of Jaffnapatam, and on the east side from where the district of Jaffnapatam ends as far as the river Walawe". This article ofthe Treatymoreover describedthe limiting boundaryofcoastal area ceded to Dutchin the aforesaid terms, as extending "to the breadth of one Sinhalese mile inland, more or less as the situation ofthe hills and rivers will perrnit.

There were two important concessionary clauses. One granted pennissionto "all the Kings servants and subjects"to fetchwithoutpayment, " as much salt as they please from the Levayas and other salt pans ". The other stressed that "as it is not the Company's intention to enrich itself at the expense of His Majestys revenue", an annual payment would be made "of the same amoumt as was formerly received by him from the countries ceded".

Very comprehensive instructions were issued by the Dutch Government to the commissioners appointed to delimit the new boundaries. These instructions are of outstanding importance. Apart from definitely revealing the motives and ambitions which underlay the Articles of the Treaty, they indicate the delicate preparation to turn them to theirfullest ultimate advantage.

Instruction 3: As by the 3rd article ofthe Treaty one Chingalese mile inland Erom sea shores of the King (always when the situation of hills and rivers permit) has been ceded, we much inform you for your guidance that by a Chingalese mile (which is of uncertain length, as at one place it is 2 hours and at another 2 1/2 hours walking) we understand an extent of 3,000 roods or 36

221helieatyofE~eacebebveen the Dutch andtheSinhalesedated l4th February, 1766, appearsonpage L33, et seq. ofthe Reportofthe Dutdl Reconls in the GvemmentArchives, byR G. Anthonisz

2S Conuptlyaguw, ameasureofdistance about Englishmiles.

24 At the month of the Maha (2ya, modem "Ywrunala" .

thousand feet Rynland measure, equivalent to thousand two hundred Geometrical paees, or as much as a goodwalker can march 9 quarters of an hour, you need not say anything else to the Candian Commissioners about this measure than that it was the average length which the Candian or other Chingalese used to call amile".

Instruction 4 : It will be best to measure 3,000 roods from the mouth ofthe Caymel River25 upwards upon the North bank and where this distance ends, the boundary can be continued northward."

Instruction 5 : The Candianswill certainlyendeavourto comprehend(sic) the peninsula Navekarre26 in the chingalese mile you are directed to avoid this, as many ofthe saltpans of Puttalam wouldthenfallinto the Kings territory. In the second case they mightwantto startmeasuringfrom the East shore ofthe lake of Putalany and by keeping Navekarre would have an opportunity of keeping a omn~ and trade with the Continent.

Forthese reason you must strictly adhere to the 4thArticle ofthe Treaty, and commence measuring from the High Water mark so as the Treaty says, without comprehending (sic) thereunder the separate land and the small islands of navakarre27, Karaiadivo, Poeliadivo28, &c ., and upon which we may and must insist, as the King by keeping the revenue, loses nothing by the cession" .

Instruction 6: Although our interest demands that we should give the freest construction the measuring ofthe shores, you may contentyourselfwith a little less than 3,000 roods if you thinkthatyou cantherebyplease the Candian Commissioners. The putulam road must however be absolutely ceded to the Company as the sSa shore on the salt pans are the Company's only objects."

Instruction 7: In ordernot to be deceivedwithrespectto the situation of salt pans, you must consult the of ricers Commanding at Putalam and Chilau (Capt. Imhoffand Lieut. Klomps) and the confidential native chiefs ofthose places, and although Imhoffand all reports agree that almost all the aforesaid salt pans will accordingly to the above measurement fall within the Company's limits and that those beyond can be rendered useless, you must, if contrary to expectations it is found otherwise with respectto some important salt pans, be prepared with means

25 The Maha Oya

26 The stripofiand terminating in Kalpitiya

27 Heretofore refelTed to as Peninsula

28 KalEitivu, alongsWlirgisland in Portugal BaySyingoffnorthofEialpitiya Peoliadivounnotbeidenti6ed

to comprehend (sic)them ,underthe Company'sjurisdiction, bytakingsomething more there from the Candians and less in other places where there are no salt pans f ar inland, without letting them perceive it, which the surl)eyors will f ind sufficient opportunities of doing ".

' ishuction 9: The measurement should be continued northward till where the territory of Jaffnapatam undeniably begins. We send 4 Chingalese Carpenterswithyou to cutdown the trees forlimitposts, on which at one ormore sides the mark ofthe Company

[Insert Pic pg 318]

must be branded, and ifpossible we wishthat those posts be placed at every 300 roods distance on places where they could easily be perceived".

Instructions 10, 11 and 12 dealwiththe calculation of revenue ofthe ceded areas which the Company undertook to pay to the King. This was of course to be done after the boundaries were settled.

These instructions were addressed to Senior Merchant and Pay Book keeper Colombo. Adrian Moens, and the Capt. Lieut. Christian Constantyn WolfiX; appointed Commissioners on the part ofthe Dutch East India Company for settingthe boundaries. The document is signed 'Your good friend" Im. Will. Falck, and dated, Colombo the 9thJune, 1766.99

The Commissioners met agreeably to the 4th Article of the Treaty. Apparently there was much discussion but a final decision was not reached30. Consequently, while the Kandyans never accepted the Treaty as definite, the Dutch kept possession ofthe entire coast and were, or considered themselves masters. Cartographical evidence discloses that they proceeded to delimit the territory by examination on the ground and by survey. Whether the boundaries were defined in the manner prescribed by instruction 9, or not, has not yet been established by research.

A Dutch map entitled "Kaart van het Eyland Ceylon l~sl circa 1766 depicts what seems to be the first attempt made to outline the boundaries ofthe territory exercised under the terms of the Treaty from the Sinhalese Kingdom, and to illustrate the interpretation given too the measure "a Sinhalese mile". on

2g Fmm the true a~yofan attested translation forwarded as an annexure to a letterdated 28thJune, 1796 + MaJor Geneml J. Stuart to the Honourable Lord HobarK Madras Record Office, Folio "Secret ConsuItations"s177 227.

Original in CeylonAIx hives, folio Dutch Political Coundlof9thJune, 1766, D. R 868

30 Stuart ofHobart Ibid.

s, Map No. 20PlateXIVVol. II

the western coast ofthe Island a more or less uniform widthhas been maintained, using the eastern shore of the Puttalam Lake as the basis for solving the difficulty over the Kalpitiya Peninsula. The boundary sited on the eastern coastal strip however, seems to have received much more liberal interpretation both as regards the distance implied by the term "Sinhalese mile" and the elasticity afforded by the qualitingterm "more orless as the situation ofhills and riverswill penTlit".

The Du Perron Map32 published 23 years after the Treaty, bore the legend that it was "improved so far as concerns the possessions ofthe Honourable Dutch Company and in particular so far as affects the sea board .... ceded to the Company by the peace of 1766" . This map, moreover, bore testimony to "latest surveys", thereby supportingthe conjecture thatthe new boundaries hadbeen delineated by measurement on the ground. The boundaries were again depicted on the Burnat Altendorffmap33, whichwas the last "Kaart" issued in the Dutch period. It was this territory in the maritime portions of Ceylon which the Dutch surrendered to the British in 179634.

(iii) In the early British Period

The Madras Govemment which initially administered the British territory in Ceylon divided the maritime belt into three collectorates for revenue purposes. They were known as the collectorate of Colombo, which extended from Chilaw to Matara; the collectorate of Tr.incomalee, to whichwere attached Batticaloa and Mullaitivu; and the collectorate of Jaffna, with Mannar and Kalpitiya.

The English Govemment had, however, much to contend with from the connection of the Dutch Government and the uncertain position of the Company's possessions35. No tribute had ever been paid in consideration ofthe tract of country ceded to the Dutch by the Treaty upon certain terms. This proved a great obstacle to tranquillity. The King of Kandy did not therefore consider himself at liberty to negotiate a treaty of f riendship and alliance with the British while investigation remained to establish the point of the Dutch having forfeited all claims to the tract of coastal strips ceded to them by the 3rd Article of the Treatythroughtheir failure to comply withthe 4th and 6thArticlesthereof36.

32 Map No. 55 Plate XVI Vol. II 33 Map No. 53 Plate XVII Vol. II 3iAltides of Capitulation ay the Dutdl, dated 15th Februaly, 1796, appearinVoL 1 ofthe Revised Edition ofthe If BgiBlativeEna*nsta

S5 Minute hy Hobart, 5th Januazy, 1708, Madms Rea rd Offioe Folio '5ElitalyConsultations", pp.8235 3e Stuart to HobarK Madras Record Office Folio "Secret Consultations" pp. 177 277

Having become heirs to all Dutch claims and interests in Ceylon, the British naturally desired to preserve every advantage theirpredecessorshadpossessed. The maritime provinces and coastal strips as delimited by the Treaty of 1766 came therefore to be held as a British possession.

In 1801 the collectorates were abolished and thirteen administrative regions called "provinces" were formed. Each ofthese units included the original minor divisions which lay around thirteen principal coastal towns37.

The regional delimitation prevailed in the maritime territory when by the Peace of Amiens,25th March 1802, the erstwhile Dutch territory came to be permanently retained bythe British, and continued as suchuntil 181533 whenthe land locked dominion which constituted the kingdom of Kandytottered to its full and was ceded to the British Crown. No immediate change was made in either the internal or external boundaries ofthe respective territories, as the two part did not form a homogenous whole and remained distinctin matters of adir.iNtion.

In 1833, by proclamation on an Order in Council39the Kandyan Provinces were included in a general scheme of administration for the whole Island, which was divided mto five Provinces Western, Central, Southern, Northern and Eastern. The adminisdtrative areas which had previously been termed provinces" in the delimitation of 1801 were now designated Districts.

(is) Revenue Boundary Surueys

The Boundary Survey, so important in its way, was a class of work which forthe most partwas sacrificed to revenue caringsurveys during 83 years ofthe existence ofthe Survey Department. Fifty years after the 1833 proclamation consolidated the boundaries ofthe four cardinal and the Central Provinces revenue officers were left in doubt oftheir boundaries on the ground. Importaant issues were continually arising over private and Crown claims to large tracts of forest, which the former professed to have been recognized in the past as coming within a "historicaal boundary and the latterjudged to be in another Province which excluded the ancient territory The agents of Government, very naturally, could not come to any decision or arrangement. Courts of law could not adjudicate, and m the meanwhile valuable forests were being exploited and timber removed. Of equal if not greater concern, were the aspects of Governmental

. _

37Jafia,MullaiX s BaNcaba,Hambant%igallarnMatala,Galle,Kalutaani,Cobmbo

Neynbo, Puttalarn and Mannar.

33ArUcbsofConvendonof2 rsd Man h 1815, aleshowninAppffldixDC p. 273, Ceybn, KyHemyMalshaH,

Aprils, 18322 IXXCqylon andits capabilifes ByJW Benne


The missing pages of Sn Lankan Sstory

interests which were stalled, namely, the incorrect location of lands by Provinces or notarial deeds, the collection of taxes, and the assignment of administrative responsibilities. The only Province or District boundaries which had been surveyed and mapped were those of the Districts of Negombo and adjoining Kegalle, and that was largely due to the surveys carried out by the pre British administration. It was not until Colonel Clarke assumed duties as Surveyor General that the serious consequences of what he described to be "a very unsatisfactory state ofthings from an economical and administrative point of view", came to be remedied.

Apparently in one or two surveys of District Boundaries which had been taken up, the surveyor had been sent out to make a map of a band of territory of indefinite width, in which the Revenue boundary as subsequently determined, may or may not lie. The surveyor returned once, or more than once to re survey altZions.

Fsllingback, no doubt, on valuable experience gained from the workhe hadputin on International Boundary Commissions, Colonel Clarke observedthat if the respective Government Agents will decide to which Province or District a Village on the boundary belonged and in doubtful cases determined on the spot the most equitable and advantageous boundary, the surveyor being present to advise as to the value of topographical features as affecting boundaries, there would be no clifficultyinlayingdown the line of demarcation thus substitutingfor work which has been made costly something which would be cheap . He stressed this consideration particularly on the grounds that the Boundary Surveys give no return in revenue; and as the discrimination to be exercised in the demarcation of the boundary necessitated the employment of a comparatively highly paid surveyor.

This nevertheless did not meet with the universal approval of the Government Agents, who were appointed Boundary Commissioners in their respective Provinces. One ofthem gave expression to his view by writing:

I am unable to concurin the proposal thatthe Commissioners Should meet on the spot and settle the boundary in the initial state of the case . I see no use walking over a boundary 30 miles or more in length, as yetunopenedand undefined.

Colonel Clarke also advocated that the boundaries should be clearly demarcated at the time of Survey in all cases, especially at important points, by rough stone pillars of sufficient size to prevent removal. He observed further, that since these boundary marks serve as standard points for future surveys besides fulfillingtheirprimalyobject, theirunautholizedremoval should be made a penal offense..


The Traditional Homeland of the Tanwils

Although apparently the procedure was subsequently based on a general compromise the temptation to delineate as much as possible of topographical details while carrying out the boundary survey, proved too strong. The work consequently proceeded on a combined basis, resulting in the survey of wide bands of country in the zones of the revenue boundary, and based on a system of minor co ordinated circuit traverses, closing on a main traverse run between trigonometrical stations.

(a) The Western Prouince When proclaimed in 1833, included what is now the North Western Province, the District of Kegalle, and what is now known as the Western Province40. The initial attempt to define these boundaries was made in 1884, by which time the Chilaw and Puttalam Districts with the Seven Korales (Kurunagala District) had been excised4l, and the Ratnapura District which was originally in the Southern Province had been attached to it. The first part of the boundary taken up for survey was the Bentota Ganga, which was common to the Western and Southern Provinces.

The next revenue demarcation was the Korale boundary between the Pasdun and Kukul Morales, through the rain 8Odden primeval f orests of Sinharw a

In 1887, the Western Central Province boundary from the natural tunnel across the Colombo Kandy Road near the 61 V4 mile stone to the Maha Oya was surveyed. It disclosed that several land transactions which had taken place after the boundarywas proclaimed in 1833, had been assigned to the Central Province when they were actually in the Western Province and vice versa. Several conferences and adjustments resulted in a new boundary being adopted in parts, and demarcated.

When in 1890, or two years later excisions were made from the Western Province to form the Province of Sabaragamvuva, the Surveyor General was able to report that the Western Province as them reconstituted, "is the only Province which can boast of a completely surveyed and demarcated boundary, at present" .

The strong traditional sentiment attached to the historical boundary in Ceylon is nowhere better illustrated than by the unique instance of a village named K aSya42 which is accepted to this day as a part of the sabaragamuva Province although severed f rom it. Although it perpetuates what would appear to be an irregularity in boundary demarcation, objection to any change, on historical and sentimental grounds has prevailed. The reluctance to its inclusion as an unit

40 P~xmdanxation of 1st Ocbober 1833. 41 da.utionoflstOctober 186

a IhisviX robsun* *inthe Hyifigarnkrale, oftheWffdxfflnEX, buttes

Seaonbindulbpo Sheetl 22, L 2. 3.


The missing pages of Sri Lankan Piston

of the Hapitagam Korale, in the Western Province, is that by such detachment it would lose the long acquired claim to be accepted as a part of the Kandyan Kingdom, andtherebythetraditionalrightto be associatedwiththe Kandyanlaw and customs.

(b) The Southern Province in 1833 included besides its present area, the Ratnapura District and a District near Badulla since obsolete, which was called Alupota and comprised Welessa and Kandu Korale43.

In 1839, Welessa was attached to the Central Province and Kandu Korale to the Eastern Province. Six years44 later the Ratnapura District, with the exception ofthe forested portion known as the 'Takkawela Hatara Bagia' 45 was excised. Consequently, the bouondaries ofthe Southern Province were in their present form when survey and definition were taken up in 1890.

The Southern Uva Province section, from the Kataragama Devale lands to the Kambukhan Oya,wasthefirsttobetakenupiorsurvey. J. W. Robertson, Assistant Surveyor, was entrusted with this important and trying work . He was destined too face the very roughest and loneliest of camp life in remote unexplored jungles, never less than 40 miles to the nearest District Centre, Hambantota, for three years. The most serious trial the staffhadto face was the scarcity of water. When small pools were found they had to be guarded against elephants, who, in search of water themselves, were not easily stopped by ordinary obstacles. Besides these inconveniences there were the distance from supplies and a most insalubrious climate to health which had to be contended with. The surveyor and his labourers were often incapacitated by fever.

Notwithstanding, when he reported on this survey at the end ofthe second year of work, the Surveyor General wrote:

Although Mr. Robertson has standing orders to move to the hills and prepare his plans and reports on any serious appearance offever, he prefers to remain till the work is completed, believing that a change of climate will most probably bring out an attack of fever which will preventhis returning.

The survey lay too far from headquarters for exerx ising any direct control and much had necessarily to be lest to Robertson'sjudgment. Towards the end of 1892, anothersurveyor, C. R. Ferdinands,wastoldofftoassisthimbytraversiIlg some ofthejungle paths and streams thus addingto the geographical knowledge

43 P>damationoflstoctoberX 1833

" ByP>daxnationoflstOctober, 1846

HIS Ee Southern eXernityofths Sinhanja FoK


The Traditional Homeland of the Tamils

of this almost unknown tract of country . The survey was completed in 1893 and the boundary as defined by Robertson was accepted by the Board of Commissioners.

What in later years proved to be avaluable auxiliary to Robertson's labour inthisunexploredlocality, arehisreports ontheArchaeologyofthe countryhe covered. The careful examination and written descriptions of every ruin he came upon during the course of his survey, proved that the task of the Archaelogical Commissioner would be no light one, but he was nevertheless assured of one great advantage in thatmostofthe places of interest were mapped.

The value of Robertson's researches was enhanced by eye copies of several ancient inscriptions, most of them in Nagari lettering which he discovered over rock caves. These evidently were particularly prolific in the Mandagala Range, which he has moreover ventured to sketchy The only remaining unsurveyed section of the Southern Province boundary, abutting on the Ratnapura District of the Western Province, which lay East of the Walawe Ganga, was defined in 1890 after doubtful issues had been settled and the true position decided. Consequently, when Robertson completed his work, the boundaries of the Southern Province, in entirety, were surveyed and defined.

(c) The Northern Province This Province included, according to the 1833 proclamation, the maritime territoryknown as the "provinces" of J~ffira, Mannar, the Vanni and the Islands including Delft, together with the Kandyan territory known originally as the Disavany of Nuvarakalaviya.

The Province assumed its present limits by the exclusion of Nuvarakalaviya in 1873. The surveyofa section ofthe boundary, from the pointwhere itcrosses the North road to a point on the coast near Kokkalai due South of Mullaitivu, was undertaken in 1890. The survey was to fulfil two objects: the first, to settle a disputed forest tract on the boundary, and the second, to obtain more information than was at the time available regarding the surroundings of the famous abandoned tank called Padavia, the bund of which had for longbeen accepted as a feature which fell on the Province boundary.

When the survey was eventually plotted, and the boundary was defined, Padavia tank was f ound actually to be several miles south of the proclaimed li mits ofthe Province.

The Province boundary West of the North road was not taken up for survey until 1897. The section from Boragasveva which crosses the Mannar Madavachiya road near the 44th mile post and contacts the Malvatu Oya,

'6E, ske h and ewcoroffnre in~son this hill lange, anv n,pdu~d in X, author s publkation AndentllrigabonWorks in Ceylon, Pet m, pp. 3042. Elm Was of all die inripfons a> e folioswi* t h e A n i a e o u I C o I r u n i 6 .


The missing pages of Sn Lankan Histoly

was surveyed by AJ. Wickwar and the remaining section to the Moderagam Aru, by J.B.M. Ridout. The Survey of the latter is supplemented by a specially well documented report describing every feature along the boundary. The ' historical boundary" between the Vanni and the Sinhalese territory lay in this belt of country . Consequently place names and f eatures acquired both a Sinhalese and aTamil rendering. Ridouthas entered bothversions in his report writing them in the respective vernacular scripts of which he seems to have had a good knowledge47.

This survey completed the definition of the land boundary of the Northern Province.

(d) The EasternProvince consisted in 1833, ofthe maritime beltknown as the "provinces" of Trincomalee and Batticaloa, together with the Kandyan territory called nnankaduva and parts of the Bintanna extending South into what is todaythe Uva Province.

The Uva Bintanna was transferred to the Central Province in 1837 and Tamankaduva was excised and included in the North Central Province in 187348. The Province was consequently in its present form when Boundary Surveys were initiated in 1897.

The section from the Anuradhapura & incomalee road, northward, to a point on the Ma Oya offPadaviatankwhich was defined in 1897 proved to be, in the words of the Surveyor General: "The most interesting of the Province Boundary Surveys taken up". It followed the Yan Oya for a considerable distance.

Three years later another section starting from the point where the boundaries of three Province meet at the Mahaveli Ganga, and terminating at the starting point of the section described earlier, was surveyed and defined. These two Boundary Surveys incidentally completed the definition ofthe boundaries of the North Central province.

The survey and definition ofthe boundary abutting ofthe Disavany of Uva was done in 189$96, and is discussed in the description ofthe limits of the province of Uva.

(e) lit e Central Prr)uir~;e at its inception in 1833, consisted ofthe Kandyan territory which is included within its present limits and the part of the present province of Uva called Viyaluwa together with the Kandyan territory known as the Disavany of Uva. In 1837, Bintanna was excised from the Eastern Province and added to the central Province . in 1839, a portion of the Vellassa and Kandukara was added to the central Province from the Southern Province.

F ile No. G.C. 45, 408. Survey Office.43

48 P>damationofSeptember6dL 1g73


The Traditional Homeland of the Tamils

WhentheProvince of Uvawasconstitutedin 188649, the boundaries ofthe Central Province fen into their present lines, with a subsequent mutation in 1904, adding the Horton Plains, which were hitherto in the Province of Sabaragamuva

On the South, South East and South West, the boundary f snows mountain rangesrisingintopeaks over 7,000 feethigh The Mahavali Gangalimitsit on the East. The North and West are defined by minor mountain ranges and foot hills which nse out of the plain.

Conflictinginterests were most at stake on the section which separated the Matale District from the seven Korales. The Government Agents of the respective Provinceswho were constituted Boundary Commissioners in 1858, failed to reach a decision regarding the proper boundary. The point in issue was whether the claimants to land in the Seven korales which formed a part of the N.W.P.,werejustifiedintheirassertionthatthe 'Eistoricalboundant' ofthe Korale lay beyond a range of hills which had been accepted as the boundary of the Province . They alleged that large extents of their land held on old sannas which described the limits as the boundary ofthe Seven Korales, had passed over to Crown or to private ownership by being incorrectly assigned to the Matale Disavany created in the early 17th century in favour of Etipola Disava50.

Evidence was led showing that the Matale claim was based on certain landmarks described in a copy of a Kadaimpota orrecord of boundaries. Rather unfortunately, whereas the boundaries described in the Kadaimpota could be identified on an other sides, the old landmarks bordering the Seven Korales were neither plentifull nor lent themselves to be readily placed.

A sunrey was first suggested fourteen years after the Commissioners had made theirpreliminaryinquiry, atwhichtime, inreplyto furtherrepresentations bythe respective GovernmentAgents, the Colonial Secretaryintimated that the Governor had decided not to accept the natural boundary along the ridge as the actual Provincial boundary but to let the Central Province retain what it had until the boundary was properly defined. The Surveyor General was accordingly directedto makethe surreyforthe selectionofasuitable line. Itwasnotuntil 1890 actually that compromise was reached and the def mition was carried out.

Another section of the boundary which f requently raised disputes was that adjoiningthe North Western Province between Polgahawela and Weuda. This was surveyed and defined in 1887.

Two sections of the boundary of the Central Province were defined in 1892. One of these was from Hakgala to Totapose, bordering Uva, for the purpose of deciding a dispute regarding its correct location at Pattipola; and the

s Pmdamation of Ist February 11886

50 Ietterfrom the G. A, N.C.P., to the Sunzeyor General, 28th May 1874


The missing pages of Sn Lankan History

other, North of Dambullabetween the north western Province boundary and the 57th mile stone on the Trincomalee road near Habarana. These suIveys too were initiated f or the settlement of disputes over claims which were constantly arising. The continuation ofthe latter boundary from Habarana to the Mahavali Ganga wastaken up in 1897 and stoppedwhen the surveyreachedthe river, as objection was raised to the crossing at Yakkure . The Archaeological Commissioner was directed to report what was the ancient boundary, and he furnished Government with reliable information gathered on the spot in 1897, showingthatthe crossing was atthejunction ofthe Wasgamuwa Oya.

The matter was, nevertheless, left in abeyance until 1903, when a proposal was submitted by the Government Agent of the Eastern Province5l for the complete excision ofthe Egodapattuwa of Tamankaduva from the North Central Province and its inclusion in the Eastern Province. The object was to make the Mahavali Ganga from Yakura to its mouth the East and West boundaries respectively on the North Central and Eastern Provinces. Valid reasons against this radical alteration of territory were urged, and Government decided in f avour of the retention of the territory on the right bank of the river in the North C entral Province.

This delimitation, however, excluded a foresthamlet called Kalukele Ebe, whose inhabitants claimed to be within a boundary which a certain "Gonigoda Ratemahatmaya" is said to have fixed as the boundary of Tamankaduva many years before the Archaelogical Cornmissioner's opinion was again sought when the claim ofthe Kalukele Ebe people was pressed in 1905. He addressed another lengthymemorandum onthe historical boundary to Government52. Basinghis views on the testimony ofthe people of Yakkure, a "Veddo" of Kosgaha Ulpota, and several others well acquainted with the ancient boundary, all of whom had given evidence in 1897 and repeated exactly what they had said eight years before without any coaching, he ventured confidently to recommend that the ancient boundary line ran along the Wasagamuwa Oya, and f rom its conf luence with the Mahavali Ganga, in an almost direct line to the Maduru Oya, passing Maha Ulpota.

This recommendation was accepted and when the boundaries were defined in 1915 the three provinces, North central, Central and Eastern fell naturallyinto position atthisnew crossingoverthe Mahaveli Ganga.

(f) TheNorth WesternProvinze was the first ofthe four Provinces which were delimited af ter the f our cardinal and the Central Provinces were prodla imed in 1833.

51 S. Haughton

52 See Appendix D


The Traditional Homeland of the Tamils

Itwas constituted in 184553 by excising the Distncts of Chilaw and Puttalam, together with the part of the Seven Korales which hitherto were included in the Western province.

The Demala Pattu of the seven Korales was excised to form part of the North Central Province when it was proclaimed in 187354, but was restored to this Province two years later55.

The boundary abutting in the Western Province, and section along the Seven Korales adjoining the Matale District, were surveyed before 1890 in circumstances already described. A short length of 14 miles between the Vanni Hatpattuwa and the Kalagam Palate in the North central Province was surveyed in 1891. The disputantswhowere notsatisfiedwiththe adjudication,lodgedtheir protest by placing every obstacle possible in the way ofthe surveyor carrying out the definition, and by petitioning the authorities. Commenting on one of these petitions which was transmitted to him by the Government Agent, the Surveyor General observed:

While my officers were carrying out the necessary survey with tact and consideration for the several claimants, all they got from the parties they were trying to help was a false report of theft and violence I trust that such measures will be taken as necessary to protect a Government officer in the execution of his duty by making an example of the villagers in question so as to deter others from similarmisconducti

The Kala Oya hitherto unsurveyed, which formed the boundary between the North Western and North Central Provinces, was added to the General map in 1894; while the sectionfurthernorth, taken upiordefinition the following year resolved itself into a tug of war between the Nuwargam Palata in the NorthCentral Province, and the Pomparippu Pattu in the North Western Province for the chain of ' villus" which are a remarkable feature in the waterless waste through which this boundary passes.

Claims were proffered from both sides for these lakelets. The claim ofthe Pomparippu Pattu was argued on the grounds that when Dickson was Government Agent of the N. C. P. in 1874, he tried to annex this tract to Anuradhapura District, but was not able to hold it f or more than a yearn . Evidence moreover showed that it was the established practice for all licences relating to timber and game over a large square ofterritory which included Kokkari and the

53 P>darnation of lstOdxber, 1845.

54 P~damationof6thSeptember, 1873.

55 P>clamaRionoflstJanualy, 1875

53 PmdaTnabon of 6th Seplernber, 1873, and lstJanualy, 1875


The missing pages o f Sri Lankan History

other ' villus" to be issued from the Puttalam Kachcheri. On the other hand, not a single instance was adduced showing that prosecutions f or inf ringement of Forest laws in this territory were heard in the Anuradhapura Court.

The Nuvaragam Palata claim was based on a Sannas. The boundary eventually recommended by the Commissioners, which was later defined, admitted the claim of the Pomparippu Pattu to the "Villus". Very clear and documented reports ofthe survey and definition whichwas carried outby Ridout are extant57.

(g) The North Central Prouince This was formed in 187358 by existing the Disavany of Nuwarakalaviya and Tamankaduwa from the Northem and Eastern Provinces respectively, as constituted in 1845. The Demala Pattu was restored to the North Western Province in 1875.

The boundaries were fully defined before 1900 in the course of surveys which have already been described with a subsequent adjustment in 1905 of the T~alimits.

(h) The Prouince of Uua was established as an administrative division in 186659, by excisionfromthe Central Province ofthattime oftheportions originally called the Disavany of Uva, Viyaloowa, a portion of Bintanna, and a portion of Udapalata east ofthe fledge running from Totapola through Naharetagala and round the hill to Hakgala. These limits have remained unchanged, but although described very fullyin the Proclamation no partofithadbeen defined by survey on the ground.

The boundary between the new Province and the territory left to the Central Province was nevertheless sufficiently demarcated by the Mahavali Ganga and theUma Oya The Udapalata section was surveyed in 1892, and linked to the natural boundary marked by the Walawe Ganga.

The section abutting on the Southern Province was defined in 1892, and the survey of this has been described, but the Eastern boundary which had for some time functioned as the Western limits ofthe Eastern Province still remained inadequately marked.

Illicit fellings and the removal of valuable ebony and satinwood from these forests through which the Province boundary passed, were pressed by the Forest Departrnent and Revenue Officers from the time the new Province was formed, as sufficientreasonforearly survey sothatlands claimedonsannas could be definitely located within the old Disavany of Uva to which they referred. The

S7 File G/C5, 408 Topo (14), Sulvey of fice 58 PmdamaXonof6thSepternber, 1873. 59 PirnabonoflstFebruary, 1866.


r~ X

The Traditional Homeland of the Tan7il.e

matter was however held over, pending a Topographical Survey of the area which the Surveyor General had arranged to carry out in 1885.

Owing to unf oreseen delays caused by the in sceessibility and unhealthiness ofthe country, the Topographical Reconnaissance had not advanced to the Province Boundary before the Topographical work was suspended.

The question of survey was next mooted in 1893. After a good deal of inquiry and investigation on the ground the trace was finally decided on the 11th of April,1894. All that remained to be done was the definition.

The survey of the Southern Uva boundary which had been recently completed by surveyor J. W. Robertson to everyone's satisfaction, weighed largely in his being picked out again to complete this work. In reply to an inquiry by the Surveyor General, he wrote:

I shall be only too delighted to go back to the wilds to lay down the line. The work should be started either in January or September owingto the scarcity of waterin these regions.

The survey was accordingly taken up in September,1894, and completed withintheyear.

The only part of the Province Boundary of Uva which remained unsurveyed thereafterwas the section from Lahugala to the Mahavali Ganga on an application which was made for the survey, ofthis, the Surveyor General wrote:

I cannot send an officer for demarcation work and to mark such a length of boundary in a wilderness, inhabited by nothing but wild beasts, neither can I see the utility in doing it except in such portions where survey and demarcation are justified. There are onlythree straight lines to be cut from four points already marked and surveyed. All that seems required in this case is to have the lines cleared by the ForestDeparAnent.

Aminor change was effected in the Province Boundary between Uva and the Central Province by the inclusion of Madulla Village into the latter, in 1912. The last adjustment made on this Province Boundary was in 1915, when a hamlet called Nittamaluwa actually in the Province of Sabaragamuva but demarcated as fallingin Uva, was accorded its correct location by an alteration ofthe Province Boundary60.

(i) The Province of Sabaragamuva was the last ofthe Provinces ofthe Island to be delimited. It was formed in 188961 by detaching the District of Kegalle

60 S. G. O. File G/CP. 573. Vol. 2.

61 Pn) onoflstJanualg, 1889


The missing pages of Sn Lankan HistoF

(the historical Three and Four Korales), Pahala Bulatgama and the portion of

Sabragamuva proper, from the Western Province. On the West and South west,

this boundary conformed to the line of division between the one time Kandyan

territory and the Kandyan Kingdom.

The boundary between the portion left to the Western Province and the

newly formed Province, and the section abutting on the Southern Province had

been surveyed and defined before the proclamation. The limit on the Uva

sectionwastheValave Ganga.

The limits of the Province of Sabragamuva and the Central Province were

naturally defined by mountain ranges and peaks which were both topographically

and trigonometrically surveyed. It was moreover traversed and cleared on the

ground in 1892. The boundary was consequently evident on the ground and

received general acceptance for many years.

In 1911 the need arose forthe appointmentofatrustee forAdam's Peak

under the Buddhist Temporalities Ordinance, on the death of the High Priest of

the Peakwho was in office long before the Ordinance was enacted and therefore

continued to officiate as such. The question as to whether the District Committees

of Sabaragamuva or of the Central Province had the right to elect the trustee

became a purely territorial one, depending on which side of the Province

boundary the Maluwa and the sacred foot print on Adam's Peak lay.

as By a letter of May,1895, the then Surveyor General assigned one third of

t the Peak to Sabaragamuva and two thirds to the Central Province. This

nevertheless appeared to be a very arbitrary dictum. As it was impossible to

follow its reasoning, the Survey General was again addressed on this new issue.

His reply was that the boundary between the two Provinces is described as

passing through Adam's Peak and that it was not clear what particular point on the


A re definition of this portion of the boundary was ordered by

Government after such historical research as may be necessary and other inquiry

were duly made.

Further search made among old records in the Surveyor General's

Offices disclosed that in the survey of 1892 previously mentioned, the Peak was

shown as being about 100 yards within the Central Province Boundary. A

memorandumbythe then GovernmentArdivisttracedthe mutations from 1820

when a Board of Commissioners administered the Kandyan Provinces, to the

re{livision ofthe Western Province in 1889 and the formation ofthe Province of

Sabaragamuva. This adduced on the evidence of these changes, that the position

of Adam's Peak with regard to the Central Province did not appear to have been



The Traditional Homeland of the Tamils

Itwas Dr. P. E. Pieris who threw mosthistorical lighton the subject. In a well documented report he submitted to Government, he showed it to be:

"A well known f act of Sinhalese history that the Peak was within the terntoryofRaja Sinha of Sitawaka, and thathe placed itin charge of the ffinduAndi orJoques (and)... The immediate and consequent presumption that Samanakuta or the Peak, was in the District of Sabwmuva, or the then Denawaka. But the weight to be attached tothispresumption", he said, "isdiscountedbythefactthatErom 1582 to 1590 the Kanda Uda Rata, later the Kingdom of Kandy, was also in the power of Raja Sinha".

Pursuing his review Dr. Pieris turned to the available maps on whichhe hasmade the following comments:

A Portuguese map by Petrus Plancius, and based on one by the Spaniard Cypriano Sanchez. There are in Ceylon no books of reference from which I can obtain information regarding these persons; internal evidence shown that the map is subsequent to 1560, and was in all probability made while Kotte was still the capital, it was abandoned in 1565. This map given no boundaries, for the dotted lines are roads. But clearly Pico de Adam is placed m the Ceitabaca Reino, or Kingdom of Sitawaka, i.e., Sabaragamuva. To conveythis impression the distance has been foreshortened between the mountain and the capital, in the same way as the distance between Kandy and Uva (Uvam) has been. At the base ofthe Peak is placed the Sapphire yieldinglands, i.e., Sabaragamuva62.

In the Dutch map attached to "Indiae Orientalis", and dated about 1602 A. D . It will be seen the Peak is placed at about the same distance from Colombo and Sitawala, and has nothing to do with Kandy. The reason seems to be this. At the death of Dharmapala im 1597 the kingdom afKotte withthe fiefofSitawakawas inherited byKingPhilip of Portugal, and Colombo was the capital ofthe Portuguese. It is not possible to conceive that the geographer would have placed the Peak as he has done had he considered it a part of the Kandyan kingdom63.

I now come to surer ground. The map of Nicolaus Visscher64, date unknown, gives the boundaries ofthe various divisions, and the Peak is shown in the midst of AtuElgam, PanawaL Kuruwiti, Atakalan, Meda, and Kadawatu Korales,

62 Map No. 71, Plate IVVol. II Map No. 87, Plate Vl Vol. 11 64 Map No. 79, Plate VIII Vol. II



Tbe missiilg pages of Sn Lankatl Histoty

and entirely clear of the boundary of the kingdom of Kandy and of Kotmale . In other words, it is in Sabaragamuva. The same appears in Appendix V, which is from another undated Dutch map, entitled " 't Groot Eiland Ceilon of Ilanare by d' Arabiers, Persianen en Chineezen Chilan genoend".

The undated map of Matthaeus Seutterus, and that of R. and J . Ottens, are to the same effect.

Cominb to English times, there is the map given in Davy's "Ceylon", printed in Londonin 1821, showingthe Peakin Saffragam andclear ofthe Kandyan boundary.

It will thus be seen that there is a strong prima facie case, based on historical facts, and Portuguese, Dutch, and English maps, for asserting that the Peakis situated in Sabaragamuva

I now proceed to another series of maps . The undated Dutch map of Isaak Tirion65shows the base ofthe Peak in the Two Korales, which is another name for Denawakaor Sabaragamuva, andthe summitin Dolushang, whichis meantfor Dolosbage. Appendix X shows it entirely in Dolosbage, and is from the French map of De L'Isle, dated 1700.66.

I suggest that this series of maps is of little value. For instance, in Tirion s map the Four Korales appear in two separate places, under the names of Hotera Korla and De Mler Korla, within the latter being shown the districts which belong to the Three Korales. This last district again appears twice, as De Drie Korle and asTun Korle, the formerincludingthe Kuruwiti andNawadun Korales andthe latter reaching the sea at Chilaw. The Seven Korales also appear twice, and the Siyane Korale is shown to the North ofthe Maha Oya. These examples are sufficlintto indicate the unreliability ofthis map, and almostthe same errors are shown in the map of De L'Isle.

The evidence in support of the assertion that Adam's Peak is in Sabaragamuwa greatly predominates .

H.W. Codrington offered equally valuable historical evidence, and


In the map attached to Davy's Interior of Ceylon"67, which is anterior in date to Schneider's map, the Peak is shown as within the Sabaragamuva Disawany. That the present boundary is wrong there can be no doubt, as Bogawantalawa once belonged to Sabaragamuva, thoughthe people of Uvagemmedthere, and I am inclined to believe thatthe position ofthe Peak as shown inthe mapsofDavy,

65 Map No. 78, Plate XIII Vol. II i Map No. 74, PlateXI Vol. II 67MapNo. 111,PlateXD[Vol.II


The Traditional Homeland of the Tamils

Schneider, and Fraseris correct. In 1814the lastinhabitedplace on the road from Kandy to the Peak was Hangarapitiya in Kalugammala of Uda Bulatgama. I am also informed that the Sabaragamuva headmen have always attended the inquests, &c.,onthemaluwa

He appended apIec is of informationinthe correspondence ofthe Kandyan Board of Commissioners68.

A letter addressed to the Colonial Secretary by Major T. Skirmer in 186Ci9 was also brought to notice in this connection which showed that the territolial location of the "Peak Widerness" had received some consideration many years earlier in which connection Skinner wrote:

I believe there never has existed a doubt but that the whole ' Wilderness of the Peak" within the ridge f orming the mountain wne belonged to the old Oude ratta, or Kandyan Province proper, although Saffragam, in commonwith Ouvah, Kotmalie, and Oude Bullootgamme, claimed the privilege of hunting and collectinghoney and wax throughout its area.

When making my reconnaissance upwards thirty years ago, and attempting to define the limits of the surrounding districts in the Widerness, not one ofthese districts would be content with anything less than a right over the whole area ofthe Wilderness as its hunting ground.

On explaining to the late General Fraser the difficulty I had experienced in defining any boundaries, and he failing to elicit from the civil authorities of the day any satisf actory solution of the question; with a view of avoiding complications which might be expected to arise from the deprivation of any District of a recognized right too hunt in the Wilderness, the line now laid down on our maps was arbitrarily adopted. We felt at the time that the character ofthe boundary thus laid down was very dissimilar to that usually adopted

58 Vol. 25, X 1825XhiefPnesthood ofthe Peakgiven byKirti SntoWeliwita Sangharajawithcopper RanMsand alsoKuttapitR SanghanDajatla2*Teditwithnwalleaveto MalinadaUnnanse toMatara District These two Chiefhsts ofthe Maritune Pnevince and three oftheirpupils held itin succession Rajadhiappo3nted MorataUnnanse as Eghh PnestdXandya!&lwatts), who thenobiained the Peakandd attadreditto the high PriFoodofKandy, and so, itcontinues. (june 1,1825; August 27,1825)

Vol 26, X 182SMaha NayakaofMalwatta clairns the Peak berause Maha Nayakas held itsince the tirne ofKund~ssle. Thedeposed kings appaintmentofKbbbekiuwe Maha Nayaka, while it annuDed the c] nsofthe pupils of Sanghan]ja byvirtueofthecoppersannas of Kirtsi, cwnpletelyrestored to the anwntherightofpatmnage. (lMarch27, 1826)

Z Majorskinner vaas associated nvith General Fraser in the production of a MRP ofthe Mountain Zone, Map No. 83 PlateXNI Part II.


The missing pages of Sri Lankarl Histo~

by natives, in well defined courses of streams and where practicable the ridges offeatures, but itwasthenthoughtto be of so little moment that less consideration was given to the subject than it would have received could its present importance then have been foreseen:

I concur with His Excellency the Governor in thinking that the only portions of the existing limits of the Western and Central Provinces with which it is necessary to interfere is that from the Peak in a Southerly and Easterlly direction, and that the natural boundary described in your letter, to which I am replying, will be the best, as I believe it was the original one, viz., from the Peak along the connecting ridge f orming the Southern segment of the mountain zone by Kondegalle and Kirigallepotah ton Totapella, leaving Wilmanee or the Horton Plains as now divided between the two Provinces70

Eventually, on the evidence that both the Palabaddela Vihare which is attachedto the Peak and theV7glage of Kuttapitiya, its anly Wz gans, are inthe Province of SaWmuva,itwas decidedto assignthe shrine onAslam'sPeakto the sameProvince. Theboundarywas accordinglyre definedin 1914, intexmsof this decision, and proclaimed in 191571

70 Sessional Paper XXXVI of 1913

71 Proclamation of 27th March, 1915