Chapter Two

Historical account of Political Divisions of Sri Lanka

A lot has been talked about by European writers who tried to interpret and provide a historical outlook of Sri Lanka based on their experiences. In light of the conspiracies and designs they advanced over the island, their recognition of the native conditions and political realities went only to the extent that was useful to them.

The 2500 years old dream of a unitary state of Sri Lanka which has existed among various rulers appealed to the British who wanted to establish a unitary form of government over the whole of Sri Lanka. The British colonial rulers legitimised the idea of unitary state by misinterpriting the Sri Lankan history as one where the entirety of Sri Lanka was ruled by Sinhalese kings.

The historical realities were different. There were different kingdoms some ruled by the Sinhalese and others by the Tamils. The experience British gained with regard to political divisions as a result of their rule based on colonial arrogance and ignorance gave them enough cause forchange and continued inquiry. However, the resulting protections were carried out within the overall idea of achievement of unitary state for the whole island leading to the constitutional crisis of today.

The demarcation between Tamil and Sinhala countries has existed from ancient times. It is supported even by the Dutugemunu story, which has been called upon to provide credence to the Sinhalese claims for the whole island. This is to be found in the following statement credited to the father of Dutugemunu, King Kavantissa:

Afterwards prince Gamini, reviewing his host, sentto announcetohis fathertheEng, Iwillmakewar upon the Damilas,theEng to protect him, forbade him saying; 'The region on this side of the river is enough'.

Mahavamsa, Trans. W.Gieger, Chapter XXIV, page 164.

On a certain day the Prince Gemini after having viewed his army had a desire to war against the Malabars, which being intimated to the king Kavantissa, was disappointed of it stating that it was not certain who would succeed in the war and that the army of Malabar king was more powerfull and that the kingdom of Ruhuna, on this side ofthe river Mahawilly was sufficient for them without the territories ofthe Malabar king.

Mahavanse, Tans. Tumor. Chapter 24 of the book of Mahavanse called Dustegamny Wanse.

The Concept of Tamil Homeland today has risen countering the claim of the Sinhalese for the whole island.

However the demarcation between the idea of Sinhala Ratta and Tamil country has existed whether any one sovereign held swav over the whole territory or not. This is evident from the usage of the term Sinhala country by the Catholic Church.

FatherMattias Rodriugueslaboured with great success in the Sinhala Nadu. He administered that sacrament to the faithfiJl who are numemus in thatdistarict, preached the Gospel to the pagans and converted 300 adult Sinhalasbybirtlh.

The Catholic church in Sri Lanka. The Dutch Period. Vol.2, V.Perinola. Report of the mission of Ceylon for the years 1740 1743, page 383.

From ancient times, Sri Lanka has come under the influence of ideas of political systems that prevailed in various periods in parts of India. Based on the Indian experience attempts were made to organise a system of government while making efforts to fuse the customs and traditions that already prevailed during the earlier periods of the island history.

As in India, the introduction of caste structured villages remained the nucleus of such political organisations. The villages xvere brought together or voluntarily came together in theformofprincipalities taking such names as Pattu(Pattuwa), Vallllimai(Valllliva), Keralam(Korale) or Thesavanni ( Desavani).


Before Mahavamsa came to be translated and entrenched as the sole authority on history of Sri Lanka during the British Period7 the Vamsa Kathava tradition has prevailed in Sri Lanka from time immemorial. With the ascendancy of Kingdoms and Kings, they patronised a particular tradition of N;amsa Kathava giving precedence to their own political aspirations and claims.

Ravana Raja Valiya and Vijaya Raja Valiya signify two major traditions of Vamsa Kathava, in which the Ravana tradition upheld the native dominance over foreign tradition and the Vijaya tradition gave prominence to the aspects of integration and dominance of external tradition into cultures and religions of the people of Sri Lanka.

During the latter period of Sri Lankan history, which came to be dominated by foreign rulers, who also sought a legitimacy by expressing a common identity by their Aryan origin, the Vijaya tradition gained ascendancy leading to the confusions of today. Ironically, the author of Yalpana Vaipava Malai who could not have had the knowledge of Mahavamsa also starts the history of the Tamils from the Vijaya story. There is another historical work called Vaiya that starts the story of the Tamils from the history of Ravana.

These traditions of writing history that were aimed at providing legitimacy to dominance not only included the main body of Vamsa Kathava which narrated the history of the Kings, but also consisted of such works as Kadayarupotta and Kaddyampotta which spoke of territorial divisions and other Vistare andVarnawawhichgavespecific details of geographic boundaries and other events of history. The Kings who aspired to be overlords of the whole island had these works rewritten providing an account of whole of the island whether they actually held the sovereignty over the whole island or not.

During the Kandyan period these traditions were revived and earlier works were rewritten with necessary modifications and manipulations, and modernised as the authors of Mahavamsa call it, giving credence and legitimacy to aspirations, designs and conspiracies that prevailed in the Kandyan Kingdom.

By tradition however, the boundaries of the principalities, villages and Kingdoms have remained more or less sacrosanct and inviolable. They could disappear and reappear like they were very much ignored during the Portuguese period, but they reappeared intact during the Dutch period.

The principalities werex˘qually structured like villages and when the Kingdoms arose sovereignty was accordingly shared between the King, the Chieftains of the principalities and heads of villages. Depending on the accumulation of the power of the chief principality, the less powerful and unimportant principalities voluntarily or otherwise fell in line the powerful principalities raising it to the power of a Kingdom. The accumulation of power came about by seeking the necessar, alliance externally as well as by building up the economic Dower by foreign trade and internal exchange, which facilitated the rise of large armies which in turn brought more esponsibilities of defence and dominance.

In those circumstances, the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the principalities remained more or less intact. Kingdoms rose only as an alliance of principalities. The obligation of the alliance rested in paying an annual tribute to the powerful principality.

The political divisions during very early times

In the puranic history of Sri Lanka, King Ravana is accorded the creditof achievement of an effective system of government and social Organization. The Hindu mythical traditions of Sri Lanka which are still part of religious beliefs of the Tamils, are full of lively stories of Ravana . The Sinhalese rnay have moved away from those memories, however, both religion and history of the Tamils in Sri Lanka cannot be separated from these shared beliefs for a long time to come.

Trincomalee which traces its origins to Ravana's Devotion to God Shiva still remains a place of great devotion o the Tamils and seen as a land mark in the cultural history of Drasidians in Sri Lanka. The cultural traditions of Hindus hf the Noth East is still woven with stories of Ravana's times. t is not the objective of this work to elaborate on the political Organization and cultural achievement of the people during {as anauS time as provided by the Kambaramayana, but the dea of political divisions can be traced to those period of time ich has now become interwoven with myths.

The Mahavamsa makes a vain attempt to ignore the nature of political foundations and divisions that made up the kingdoms as its political objective is to provide credence to the hegemonistic idea of a Buddhist unitary state on the whole island.

The evidence of various political division of Sri Lanka has always remained a difficult idea to hide by the enthusiasts of unitary state. The existence of various political divisions of Lanka appears during the time of Buddha in Mahavamsa.

Various Kingdoms and people with whom Buddha held discourse during his visit to the island as given by Mahavamsa are:

Name of Kingdom Capital
Yakka Kingdom Mahiyangana
Naga Kingdom Nagadipa
Naga Kingdom Kannavaddamana Mountain
Naga Kingdom Kalyani

Mahavamsa, Trans. W. Geiger, Chapterl, page 4 - 7.

The Sinhalese make no claim to this part of political history of Sri Lanka since their origins begins only after are the arrival of Vijaya which has not taken place during the time of Buddha's visit.

The author of Mahavamsa who is anxious to promote the ides of unitary state do not spare even Buddha from racial ideas when he says:

For Lanka was known to the Conqueror as a place where his doctrine should thereafter should shine in glory; and he knewthat fromLanka filledwithYakkas, the Yakkas must first be driven forth.

Mahavamsa, Trans. W. Geiger, Chapterl, page 3.

The Tamils today do not make an explicit claim to the achievement of Yakkas and Nagas, though historian Mudaliyar Rasanayagam traces the origin of the Tamil Kingdom in the North to the Naga Kingdom that existed from early times and Yakkas are linked to the Tamil Kingdoms in the East from the time of Ravana.

It seems clear, therefore, that a Naga Kingdom existed in the north Ceylon continuously from the 6 to century B.C. to the middleofthe3rdoentunrAD. Its capital must have been either Kadiramalai (Kandthan)dai) in Jaffna or Mantota. In these places there are piles of ruins yet to be excavated; and at Kantharodai in particular, where a numberofIndian and Roman coins have been picked up even on the surface of the soil.

The Ancient Jaffna, Mudaliyar C.Rasanayagatn, Chapter 1, page 32.

The Yakkas and Nagas whQ are seen as the people of Ravana are the founders of the earliest civilization in the island. This tradition is strengthened byMahavamsawhere Buddha begs for a place to sit down from the Yakkas.

"I will banish this your fear and your distress, O. Yakkas, give ye hear to me with one accord a place where I may sit down".

The Mahavamsa, Trans. W. Geiger, Chapter 1, page 4.

However Mahavamsa acknowledges the sovereign right the Nagas held over the North in the names of Kings in its chronology.

These names are :

Mahalaka Naga 135 AD
BhatikaTissa (son) 141 AD
KanittaTissa (brother) 165 AD
Cula Naga 193 AD
Kuda Naga 195 AD
SiriNagaI 196 AD
WoharakaTissa (son ) 215 AD
Abaya Naga 237 AD
Sri Naga II 245 AD
Vijaya (son) 247 AD

The nature of political divisions and the idea of unitary state.

The caste system in Vijas;a tradition of Vamsa Kathava is brought to Ceylon along with the Tamils of Pandyan Kingdom wheel Vijaya's consort arrived from Madurai With the people of various casts.

Though authors of Mahavamsa are at pains to portray the lineage after Vijaya reverting to his country of origin, the naIlle Pandu that is found in the names of subsequent rulers cannot be disassociated from the Pandyan Kingdom. This also identifies a strong Pandyan influence in the early Sri Lanka and Sinhalese culture.

The interaction between North Indian refugees with the Pandyans and theYakkas,Nagashasprovided the basis of conflicts during the period of early Buddhism. Though the authors of Mahavamsaareanxious toascribe to rulers of a paramount position, a close scrutiny of stories clearly show their power did not extend beyond the principality of Anuradhapura.

When the ruler ofthe earth Pandugabaya, the intelligent being 37 years old, had assumed rule over the Kingdom, he reigned full seventy years in fair and wealthyAnuradhapura .

Mahavamsa, Trans. W. Geiger, Chapter X, page 76.

Mahavamsa attributes Pandugabaya the credit for establishing the village boundaries but says nothing of the boundaries of the principalities.

However it says he was friend of Yakkas and Buttas8. This could mean the demarcation of villages were carried out only within his principality9. The Buttas is undoubtedly a reference to Veddas. Looking at the boundaries of the principality of Nuwarakalaviya which boarded the principalities of Veddas and Yakkas, the sovereign powers of Vijaya and his kingdom did not extend beyond the principality of Anuradhapura. According to the historical work AnuradapuraVistare the extent of principality of Anuradapura was about 30 square miles.

A more elaborate authority appears only during the period of Ellala from the extent of wars fought by Duttu Gamini. The authors of Mahavamsa rush to ascribe that the defeat of Ellala would have brought immediately the establishment authority over all of the island.

"When he had thus overpowered thirty two Damila Engs,DutfuGamini ruledoverLanka in single sovereign"

Mahavamsa, Trans Geiger, ChapXXVI page 179.

This statement identifies Tamil rule over 32 principalities during the time of Ellala.

The feebleness of the idea of unified Lanka under Dutugemunu is revealed by Dutugemunu himself.

The Worrier Theraputta Bhaya could not have that whichwas allotted tohirn, and being asked, he answered "It is war" And questioned, 'When a single realm is created, what waris there?", he answered "I will do battle with those rebels, the passions where in victory is hard to win".

Mahavamsa, transl. W.Geiger, Chapter XXVI, page 179.

This clearly exposes the limitations of the idea of Unitary State which was brought about by Dutugemunu.

The Story of Duttagamini ( Duta Wicked) and his victory over the Chola King Ellala who ruled over Anuradapura which has become the source of inspiration and providing the historical basis for the claims of the Volk to its right to dominate the whole island, according Mahavamsa took place 101 BC and the lineage of Dutagamini continued in Anuradapura till 44 BC before the Tamils took over the rule again.

According to the Sinhalese historical work Vannipuvatha the court of Parakrama Bahu I ( 1 153 1186) had scholars versed in four languages. They were Tamil, Pali, Sanskrit, and Hela. No language by the name Sinhalese language was known in Sri Lanka even during this time. The metamorphosis that lead to the emergence of a new language by the name Sinhalese language, borrowing from the four earlier languages started only after this and during the 13th century, same works were written in the two languages of Hela and Singhalese simultaneously.

The Hela language is a dialect of the Dravidian tribes of the island and shares the same grammatical traditions with Tarnil and is not considered a language that has come to this island from out side. Further it shares the common tradition with Tamil of maintaining purity without mixing with Sanskrit. If this is so, the people who spoke this language of Hela could not have called their language an Aryan Language and named themselves an Aryan Race. They could have represented the anti Aryan spirit of Ravana.

In recent period, Munidasa Kumaratunga made an attempt to revive these traditions of Hela language but had only a limited success.

The Volkists and their foreign mentors who cooked up the theory that the Singhala Race is an Aryan Race who brought civilisation to this island 2500 years have comfortably chosen to name Hela as old Sinhalese to get over the major flaw in their theory and hide the real origins of the heritage of the Sinhalese people. The Hela language and the culture of the people who spoke the language had shared a common Dravidian heritage. The story of any language by the name Sinhalese language, Sinhala race and Sinhalese Civilization and of Aryan origin beyond the 12th Century exists only as a product of imagination and myth making and it does not reflect the realities of history.

The story of Duttagamini took place in period when there was no people, no language and no kings by the name Singhalese existed on this island. The name of Duttagamini s father Kakka Vanna Theasan (Thesan whose colour was like that of a crow) which is found in earlier versions of Mahavamsa, and the subsequent attempts to distort and hide meaning of this name clearly indicates he was a Tamil. During this time a great number of Tamils were Buddhists.

The friendship and common cultural root the Sinhalese of today have with the Pandiyans that have existed through out the known history of the island, leads to the possibility that the conflict between Duttagamini and Ellala is the product of the traditional Pandyan Chola conflict that extended to Sri Lanka as long as they existed in the Tamil Country in India up to the 14 th Century until their final decline.

When a Kingdom has been brought into existence by the alliance of various principalities and the supreme King is defeated, the principalities reassert their independence. And in turn, the new pretender has to seek alliance with these principalities negotiating new terms of alliance or has to extend the war fighting and subduing each of the principalities This could happen before or after the defeat of the supreme King.

Raja Valiya speaks of many different Kings of Vanni Ratta during the time of Vijayabahu ( l 055 - 1110)

The different kings of Wanny within the kingdom Pihitty, came there v vith great many presents, and appeared before the king, Wjayabahoo who also gave them. different presents, as mariz of honour and much pleased

Raja Valiya, ed. E. Upham, page 355.

Though it had been the trend in most of the Vamsa Kathava works to support the aspiring claims the various rulers made for the whole island and play down the importance of sovereign powers of various principalities, the united Sri Lanka was always a union of principalities and there were at the same time two or three independent kingdoms existing at any one time.

In the latter period of history, these Kingdoms were the l Kingdoms of Jaffna, the Kingdom of Kotte and the Kingdom of Kandy.

The differing nature of the imprints that these Kingdoms have left in the minds of the people as a result of their distinct and purposefully different relationship with foreignpowers has ledtothedifferentperception ofwhatis freedom and independence.Theattitudeofappeasement and surrender of Kingdom of Kotte, war and defeat by Kingdom of Jaffna, betrayal and subjugation of the Kandyan Kingdom were the different experiences of these Kingdoms as theyfaced and weathered the foreign rule.

Apart from differing attitude to foreign rule, the claims for the whole island which each of these divisions made, broughtmanystrange alliances where theseforeignpowers were offered territories over which the respective kingdom did not have any legitimate claim.

The offer of the weaker kingdom of Kotte, which was on its knees unable to protect itself, made to the Portuguese gising the whole island of Ceylon, including the kingdom of Jaffna to which it was a near vassal brought about the defeat of the kingdom of Jaffna, let alone its own subjugation.

Subsequently the offer made by the Kingdom of Kandy to the Dutch, offering territories in the maritime areas including the East over which it did not have a legitimate claim, when these territories were under the Portuguese rule, brought about the Dutch rule over the maritime territories of Kotte,Jaffna, Trincomalee and Batticaloa.

The peoples subscription and loyalty to any idea of political union could hold good only so far as the union would bring them benefits. These benefits are usually security, stability of the value system and way of life and to what extent political entity would meet their expectations for the future.

When communication was little developed and the number of people too were not many, peoples life were very much limited to their self contained villages which were the nucleus and foundation of human civilisation in the Hindu society The villagers came together in the form of principalities which provided for uniform authority structures that facilitated for broader human existence. The security of the villages and stabilityoftheir norms were guaranteed by the chieftain of the principalities. The economic and the Cultural life of various principalities provided the necessary sense of security of the people. The mutual respect the principalities held between themselves was the foundation of the political stability that existed throughout the Sri Lankan history

The validity of the claim and sovereignty over all of Lanka which the Sinhalese historians ascribe to their rulers can be best judged from this statement ascribed to the Kandyan King Rajasingha ( 1 635 1 687) .

"Thus Rajasingha, who had united all Ceylon in one banner died on Thursday the 7th of the moon under the planet called Seta."

Raja Valiya, Ed E. Uphatn, page 313.

In fact Rajasingha never united Lanka under one banner or ruled over all of Lanka. The Portuguese were ruling the Kingdom of Kotte and other maritime territories when the Dutch befriended the Kandyan King Rajasingha . The King offered to the Dutch some of those territories that were under the Portuguese in return for the expulsion of the Portuguese. After liberating those from the Portuguese, the Dutch now having a better comprehension of the legitimacy of the claims of the Kandyan King kept those territories for themselves.

Writing on the political formation that marked the nature of government that existed in Sri Lanka throughout history G.C.Mendis wrote :

"Thesystem ofgovernment during this period cannot be understood unless it is realised that there was very little central control, partly owing to the lack of proper communications. The sub kings andthe chiefs, like the village communities, were rarely interfered with, as long as they remained loyal and paid the Kingns dues.

The King's chief duty was to maintain order within and to defend the country from enemies without. His other activities included the endowment temples, the erection of religious buildings and hospitals (which he performed as religious acts) and the building of tanks, which not only helped the people but also increased his revenue .

Therefore when Kings were slain or the succession broken, the people still carried on their daily activities without hindrance, unless a rebellion was prolonged, or the country was invaded by foreign Kings.

The Early History of Ceylon, G. C.Mend is, page 38.

The rise of kingdoms which usually accompanied the claim for the whole island always put pressure OII the binding forces and autonomous authority structures of the principalities As the Hindu values favoured the consolidation of caste structured Villagers among theTamils, within the demarcation of the principalities, a difference can be observed between Tamilsand Sinhalese in theirlovaltytosvards their Xillage or the principality The Sinhalese are identified with a greaterdegree of subscription towards theprincipalitvwhere as theTamil identity is more entrenched in the village.

The functional names of the Sinhalese are linked more tothe authority structures oftheprincipalities. Amongiamils the dominance of the caste structured village tend to weaken the demarcation of the principalities. This also has been facilitated by the more powerful and assertive nature of Kingdom ofJaffna during the latter period.

The decline of any powerful Centralized kingdom and the difficulties the Kingdom of Kotte and Kandy had in asserting themselves after the arrival of the foreign aspirants, brought about the weak Centralized rule among the Singhalese. This has strengthened the trend where the political authority became consolidated at the level of principalities, which greatly determined the traditional norms and political culture among the Sinhalese some of which are well pronounced even today.

The political divisions within the Tamil Homeland

Since the 18th century the political evolution of mankind is distinguished by the emergence of national consciousness and ideas of statehood based on linguistic, cultural, religious identities and commonness in the tradition and patterns of authority structures. The concept of Tamil Homeland and statehood emerges in the same historical context, though postponed considerably by colonialism. The technological, cultural, political and economic advances have made freedom and democracy imperative for the establishment of good government and secure way of life. Today this metamorphosis of Tamil statehood has been made cogent by the experience the Tamil people have had under the Sinhala Volk and its continued arrogant disposition in denying the rights of Tamil people.

The aggregation and integration of the idea of Tamil homeland is based on the political foundations provided by the territories of Tamil Kingdoms and Principalities that have been inhabited by the Tamils from times before any one could speak of a Sinhala race on this island.

The idea of a united Sri Lanka has to be so constituted that it recognises and accommodates the parameters of Tamil Statehood while at the same time it spells out the benefits and purpose for which the Statehood has come in a union. Otherwise there is no need whatsoever for the Tamil people to depend on the Sinhalese. The desperation and the dishonourable methods the Volk has adopted within the Tamil I homeland to prevail upon the Tamils that they cannot do without obeying its dictates and the pretentious dramas that have been enacted to cover up the true disposition of the Volk within the Tamil Homeland has left such impression in minds of the Tamil people seriously questioning the worthiness of any cohabitation with the Sinhalese in one nation.

The Tamil drift away from the idea of a unitary Sri Lanka into their own statehood is only a fall back on a way of life where they have existed as a proud and heroic people not only defending their own secure and peaceful life but at times that of whole of Sri Lanka.

There are interesting descriptions of the political organizations and demarcations of the Tamil people by Portuguese historians.

"This modest Kingdom is not confined to the little district of Jafanapatao, because to it are also addedtheneighbouringlands, andthose oftheVani,whichis said to be the nameof the Lordship which they held before we obtained possession of them, separated from the proceeding by a salty river, and connected only in the extremity or isthmus of Pachalaipali, within which were the lands of Baligamo, Temerache, Bedemarache, and Pachalaipali forming that peninsula, and outside it there stretch the lands of Vani crosswise, from the side of Manar to that of Triquilemale, being separated also from the country of Mantota in the jurisdiction of Captain of Manar by the river Paragali; which lands end in the River of the Cross in the midst of the lands of the Vani and of others which stretch as far as Triquilemale, which according to the Map appears to be a large tract of country.

These lands are divided into Patus and the first near the River of the Cross is Tanamavaraddi, a veIy fine country but almost uninhabited becauseofwar, andbecauseitwas the route of our arrayals, the husbandmen who escaped from the war betaking themselves to the woods, leavingvery few for cultivation. From thence to the side of Manar is the Province of Muliauali,whichconsists ofthree patus, Varcama, Valadadi and Melpatu.This Province is the principal one of all the lands of the Vani, and is fruitful, though badly peopled on account of war and because it is unhealthy.

Next comes Carnapatu and the province called Panagamo the name ofthe Vania who resided there. It consists of the Patu of Urugare and of Valavi which border on the lands of Mantota, and along the cost ofthe sea or gulf of Ceylon there are the villages Parangali, Uerauil Punari, and others of lesser importance.

Temporal and Spiritual Conquest of Ceylon, Father Fernao De Queroz, Vol.l, page 51.

It remains to give a description of Triquilemale, which means the Mountain of the three Pagodas. It lies on the coast opposite Colombo, 35 leagues southward from Jafanapatao. Overthatlargeharbour therejuts out from the land into the sea a rock on which the King of Ceylon erected three Pagodas, two at the extremities ofthe hill overhanging the sea, and one in the middle and and the highest point whichwas the principal one and one of the most venerated in India, being worshipped by the idolatrous navigators who descryitfrom from the sea, and much frequented by aconcourse of pagans from the last Pagoda, which stands on the over the sea, they throw themselves down in sacrifice to their idols reaching the bottom in pieces being persuaded that by that leap into hell they are lifted up to Paradise.

The harbour of Triquilemale is the best in Ceylon and one of the best in the world, for opening between two head lands and between two islands distant one league and a half one from the other, it has a width of three leagues and forms into a bay nearly square ofthree leagues indiameter, which leads to another on the north nearly of equal size, called Bra dos Arcos which, though in shape more irregular, is sheltered from all winds.

The lands of Triquilemale hadaPrince who came by his end in the reign of D.Joao King of Candea owing to a remarkable and amatoryevent; andtheywereso abundant in rice, that in two fields alone which are three leagues from the fortilise called Tambalagama and Gantale they sowed in those days in each of them 10,000 amanoes of nele, which corresponds 4,000moyaos, and that twicea year. They are dedicated to the service of the Pagoda and after the Portuguese garrisoned that port, they lived in each ofthem 15 to 20 farmers, forthe rest left forCutiar.

The temporal and KSpiritual Conquest of Ceylon. Father Fernao de Queyroz,Vol.l page 66, 68.

Batecalou lies in the opposite cost of Ceylon, 18 leagues from Triquilemale to the South and 35 from Cande. The lands of this Principality are cool and the most abundant in victuals and cattle in all Ceylon, to such an extant, that a cow costs thirty reys and there is a like abundance of butter, fowls, and fish which is also due to the fact that its inhabitants, the Macuaz, do not eat meat. Its proper name is Mandacalopo which means Miry lake, because there is one of seven leagues in length, and in parts half a league broad; and the bottom on the north side is so muddy, that if one sticks therein he cannot come out unless he is pulled. Around it there are villages and palm groves very fresh, wherein lives three Vanes or Princes ...on separate territories .

This principality has 34 leagues in circuit, 24 of which are well peopled, those of Tricouvile very badly, because of its inhabitants went over to the other parts of Batecalou and very large fields became salters. There in this countrybetterXaya than in any other part of Ceylon, much wax, ivory, lemons and oranges and great fertility in rice where cultivated. Twelve leagues from the port of Batecalou, and to the south stood that famous Pagode of Tricouili, which in Ceylon had a great cult.

Paneua is the poorest Principality there is in Ceylon, because it is very dry land and the most lacking in food supplies in the whole island. They make up for the lack of water by some wells, but it is only of one that the water is good. It consists of 18 villages lying all on the sea cest.

The principality of Cutiar within a circuit of 40 leagues has 19 villages, more peopled and better provided than those of Paneua, whence the inhabitants get a great quantity of areca, honey, wax and ivory. and they cultivate rice, tana andnachiriz.

The Temporal and Spintual Conquest of Ce) ion . FatherFernao de Que) roz . Vol l.P.64 &65.

The purano historical works such as Yalpana Vipava Malai, Konesar Kalvettu, Maddakalappu Manmiyam and Thakshina Kailayapuranam narrate the history of these principalities from puranic period. The Lankapuri of Ravana is known as a Sivapumi or land of Shiva to the Sivaite saints. In spite of the overlordship of Jaffna over the whole island in the latter period, there does not exist a purano historical work like SIahavamsa of the Tamils validating a claim over the whole of Ceylon, as much of the historical works written in Tamil during the period of Kingdom of Jaffna have become lost or destroyed by wars with Portuguese.

The jungle tracts that divided the Sinhalese principalities and the Tamil principalities and Kingdoms in the eastand north were recognised territories of Veddas. Some of these Veddas have been paving tribute to the eastern principalities while thewT maintained close economic relationship With them.

During the early 16th century, the Kandyan Kingdom which was nonexistent during the period of Jaffna, has yet to take off the ground and look down upon the Eastern plains for a pathway out to the sea, when in subsequent times it become land locked by the occupation of the Western littoral by the Portuguese.