Prabhakaran and LTTE: A Chronological Bibliography

Compiled by Sachi Sri Kantha, May 23, 2024

Front Note

This is a revised version of my previous compilation, in three parts. Part I appeared on Nov 16, 2009. Part 2 was posted on Nov 24, 2010, and Part 3 appeared on Nov 27, 2011. Cumulatively, there were 189 items in the three parts. After that compilation, I temporarily stopped compiling LTTE literature for the reason what I had noted on Nov 27, 2011, “When reading the texts of these research-oriented papers, it becomes evident that majority of these are merely labored bone-shifting efforts of language challenged, culture challenged, dimwit academics from one boneyard (grave) to another boneyard. The sources of their original data on the Tamil Tigers are biased as well, such as ‘terrorism expert’ Rohan Gunaratna. The cited so-called ‘LTTE experts’ (D.B.S. Jeyaraj, Rajan Hoole and their ilk), with the exception of Daya Somasundaram, have never published in any peer-reviewed journals which cater to the relevant areas of interest.” still remains true.

Now, more than 12 years have passed by. For this compilation, I’ve updated the list with missing items and included pertinent literature in non-English languages since the 1980s. Please note that ONLY the literature indexed in PubMed and other authentic commercial databases are included. I have updated the entries to year 2023. Excluded items include book reviews, copious literature in newspapers, popular monthly, fortnightly, weekly news magazines (with specific exceptions), and personal web blogs.

British Annexation of Kandyan Kingdom – Ilankai Tamil Sangam

Ceylon map of 1796 indicating the Eelam state as the ‘Jaffna Commandment’


In reductive terms, from Tamil perspectives, Velupillai Prabhakaran’s life can be summed up in three sentences. “He had a grief. He had a mission. He had a gift.” His grief was that Sinhalese had stolen the traditional Tamil homeland (Eelam) by deceit and guile. Whatever the 21st century advocates of Sri Lankan state promote, the historical boundaries of the Sinhala country, as it existed in 1796 (prior to the British colonial unification of Sinhalese and Tamil nations), appears in page xiii of Ralph Pieris’s 1956 book, entitled Sinhalese Social Organization (Ceylon University Press Board, Colombo, 311 pages). I provide this page adjacently. Not only Prabhakaran, most Tamils share this grief. Prabhakaran’s only mission in life was to retrieve the stolen Tamil homeland from the Sinhalese. In the 1970s, apart from Prabhakaran, quite a number of his contemporaries also shared this mission. His Sinhalese adversaries were NOT scared of his mission.

I’d say only Prabhakaran had a gift – NOT shared by any other Tamils of his generation. His Sinhalese adversaries were scared of his gift – an unadulterated brain, which outplayed and outwitted four Sinhalese presidents ( J.R. Jaywardene, R. Premadasa, D.B. Wijetunga and Chandrika Kumaratunga) and eleven Sinhalese army commanders (namely, D.S. Attygalle, J.E.D. Perera, T.I. Weerathunga, G.D.G.N. Seneviratne, H. Wanasinghe, L.D.C.E. Waidyaratne, G.H. de Silva, R. de S. Daluwatte, C.W. Weerasooriya, L.P. Balagalle and S.H.S. Kottegoda), not to mention four Indian prime ministers (Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi, V.P. Singh and Chandrasekhar) and one Indian army commander (Krishnaswamy Sundarrajan [Sundarji]).

Eelam Tamils have seen so many savvy-talking politicans, ‘me too’ militants and turncoats who tinked with the Eelam word as a party tag, as an electioneering slogan for a parliamentary seat, as a brokering mask and as an attention-grabbing tool. But, Prabhakaran was different from Suntharalingams, Amirthalingams, Anandasangarys, Devanandas, Padmanabhas, Perumals and Karunas. For his unadulterated brain, Eelam is NOT a bargaining, bartering item. He wouldn’t bother to compromise on it, and he would not sell it out for a parliamentary seat, or a chief ministership or for an ignominious Sri Lankan Cabinet Minister tag.

As the only academic to author a Prabhakaran biography (Pirabhakaran Phenomenon, 2005), what I present here as a select chronological bibliography provides details on Prabhakaran’s mission and strategic steps. Apart from a few notable exceptions, I have limited this bibliography to research-oriented publications that have appeared in peer-reviewed, international journals; most of which I have bothered to read. Majority of the items are in English, with a few entries in other languages (EXCLUDING Tamil and Sinhala). Rather than arranging the material, in the conventional alphabetical order of authors, I have arranged the bibliography chronologically, so as it may reflect historical development of events from 1976 to 2022.

I do recognize that another bibliographical compilation on LTTE activities circulates in the net. This was prepared by Sri Lanka-born Prof. Michael Roberts (currently residing in Australia). I consider him as a legitimate historian colleague, senior to me. But, he has his peculiar biases (see the list below), and to compensate for his lack of proficiency in the Tamil language, he depends strongly on adulterated (or should I say, dubious) opinion makers among Tamil journalist scribes.

Some caveats have to be mentioned. In my reading, I noted that more than 90 percent of authors of these research papers have been biased on Prabhakaran’s mission and interpretation. The New Oxford American Dictionary (2001) provides a general definition of bias as, ‘prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair.’ One of the accepted definitions of bias in the hard sciences is that of Edmund Murphy: ‘Any process at any stage of inference which tends to produce results or conclusions that differ systematically from the truth’ [The Logic of Medicine, John Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1976].

A short letter of mine was published in the now defunct Asiaweek (Hong Kong) weekly of January 5, 1995. As Prabhakaran’s LTTE group had been unfairly tagged with the ‘terrorist’ label in the 1980s first by the Sri Lankan government and then by the Indian government, Asiaweek published an editorial in late 1994. My published letter (a mangled one at the editorial desk of this magazine) was as follows:

“In my opinion your sermon, ‘The War Against Terrorists, Truth is the best Weapon’ belongs to the world of fairies and angels [‘Keeping the Lid On’, EDITORIALS, Nov 30]. I live in a real world where the truth is always hidden or restrained from revealing its naked beauty.

Truth is massaged and masked by the media in many countries. Truth is also decorated by almost every practicing politician on this globe according to his or her fancy.

It is an open secret that the intelligence services of many countries manufacture or clone truths according to their whims. So you have the alphabet soup of CIA, (formerly the) KGB, MI6, Mossad, RAW and ISI working overtime to manipulate the political, ethnic and religious frictions prevailing in many countries. I find it perplexing that in your sermon, you have not bothered to mention these creators of ‘cloned truths’.”


Ten Identifiable Biases

I provide below a list of ten biases that clutter and confuse the descriptions of Prabhakaran and LTTE. These are as follows:

  • Tamil language incompetency bias: with a few exceptions, non-Tamil scholars suffer from this bias seriously.
  • Lack of access bias: Those researchers interested and willing to contact the LTTE were marked and harassed by Sri Lankan officials from their entry point in Katunaike airport on.
  • Gumshoes’ truth distortion bias: Many of the articles that appeared in the 1980s and 1990s never identified the roles of gumshoes (RAW, ISI, Mossad and even CIA) who influenced the events in Sri Lanka or Chennai.
  • Sri Lankan travel visa bias (also tagged as, ‘Now needed’ bias or ‘National Geographic’ bias): This is a variation of ‘Lack of access bias’. Those who specialize in Sri Lankan history have to comply with the dictates of the Sri Lankan bureaucracy for their repeat visits. National Geographic magazine’s coverage has this bias, as it wouldn’t antagonize the officialdom so as not to lose future access to the territory.
  • Blinded mule bias (also tagged as human rights barker’s blind angle bias): The blind mule refers to the anecdote described in The Three Princes of Serendip story (that generated the word ‘serendipity’ by Horace Walpole in 1754). where one of the princes after landing in Serendip island discovered a mule blind of the right eye that had traveled the same road, because the grass was eaten only on the left side. Contributions of the self-designated human rights activists (such as Radhika Coomaraswamy, Rajan Hoole and Daya Somasundaram) suffer from this bias.
  • Terrorism industry menagerie bias: The word ‘menagerie’ derives from the French word menage (meaning a household or unit of people living together). Ehud Sprinzak, Robert Pape, Kasun Ubayasiri and Harendra de Silva are notable among the authors whose works suffer from this bias. They have gulped most of the material serviced by foremost Sinhalese ‘tainted terrorism expert’ Rohan Gunaratna, and regurgitated the same.
  • Unverified/unverifiable garbage bias: Quite a few Sinhalese authors (especially historian Kingsley M de Silva and Rohan Gunaratna) cite privileged sources – such as interviews – that cannot be easily accessed and verified.
  • Timid media punditry bias: To overcome the first two biases listed above, authors turn to media punditry (such as local newspapers and magazines) and quote these as authentic sources. Contributions of North American authors such as Bryan Pfaffenberger, Marshal Singer and Bruce Matthews suffer from this bias.
  • ‘Me too Expert’ bias: This bias is preferentially seen among the contributions of native Tamil authors, such as Rajan Hoole and Daya Somasundaram.
  • Sinhala state-funding bias: This bias can be expected from the publications of academics and medical doctors who are employed in Sri Lankan universities and other institutions receiving their monthly remunerations and research funding. Publications of Shantha Hennayake, Daya Somasundaram and Harendra de Silva suffer from this bias.

Despite these prevalent biases, one should appreciate the contributions of non-Tamil academics (who have bothered to read Tamil literature on the LTTE). Peter Schalk, Mark Whitaker, Margaret Trawick are worthy of note and deserve highlight.


LTTE’s Merits over the Sri Lankan Army

As all know, though the LTTE was militarily defeated by the Sri Lankan army in May 2009, there are two specific issues on which Sri Lankan army could NOT top the LTTE’s record. First, by general consensus, the LTTE outwitted and outperformed the Indian army in its 1987-1990 confrontation. As of now, the Sri Lankan army cannot boast of this record. Secondly, when it comes to the issue of rape in war and violence against women, the LTTE’s record is unblemished, but the record of Sri Lankan army is despicable.

In its January 15th, 2011 issue, the Economist magazine published a three page unsigned commentary ‘War’s overlooked victims’ (pp. 54-56). The Economist, as I have chronicled in the past, has been a biased observer on the LTTE’s record. Thus, in this unsigned commentary, Economist paid a left-handed compliment to LTTE as follows:

“Some groups commit all kinds of other atrocities, but abhor rape. The absence of sexual violence in the Tamil Tigers’ forced displacement of tens of thousands of Muslims from the Jaffna peninsula in 1990 is a case in point. Rape is often part of ethnic cleansing but it was strikingly absent here. Tamil mores prohibit sex between people who are not married and sex across castes (though they are less bothered about marital rape). What is more, Ms. Wood explains, the organisation’s strict internal discipline meant commanders could enforce these judgements.”

The Ms. Wood cited above is Elisabeth Jean Wood, a professor of political science at Yale University. I checked her curriculum vitae sponsored by the Yale University. In it, she states that she has competence in Spanish (fluent speaking and reading proficiency) and Portuguese (fair reading proficiency). But, is she proficient in either Tamil or Sinhalese? Not so, I believe. Here is a typical case of snob bias (an American lady academic and attached to Yale University) perpetrated by the Economist magazine. How dare Ms. Wood pass judgement on Sri Lankan civil war and on the LTTE’s behavior, though in this instance her explanation is favorable to LTTE? It appears to me that Ms. Wood is also ignorant about the delicate Tamil-Muslim political conflict in Sri Lanka’s north and east provinces, since the early 1970s, to be able to pass judgement on the isolated event of 1990 expulsion of Muslims from Jaffna peninsula.

Among another recorded pro-LTTE views following the defeat of the LTTE, I wish to cite a pensive editorial penned by Anthony Marcus, Ananthakrishnan Aiyar and Kirk Dombrowski for the journal Dialectical Anthropology in 2009. For its relevance, I provide below one paragraph from this editorial.

“When it comes to chaos and sheer chutzpah, there is no bourgeoisie that can match the Sinhalese Buddhists of Sri Lanka. With the international community as its enabler, it has recently defeated the national liberation struggle in ‘Tamil Eelam’ (the far northern coastal strip inhabited by Hindu and Christian Sri Lankan Tamils) in one of the most shocking examples of ethnocidal violence that we have seen in years. You do not have to be a Marxist, a third world liberation fighter, or even functionally literate to realize that this imperialist system puts a very low price on the lives of ‘brown people’. So what is really so shocking about Sri Lanka, where the 60-80 thousand who have died really don’t compare much to, for instance ethnocide in Africa, tidal waves in Asia, or the original sin of kidnapping 10 of the first 12 million people to travel to the New World. What we find genuinely shocking is the way that the international community has cheered on the ethnocide, allowing the Sri Lankan state to pose this as an issue of fighting terrorism, rather than as an issue of self-determination. It is the double standard of power. Or as Chomsky observed so many years ago, the emperor and the pirate do the same thing, but the pirate is in the wrong…”

As of May 18, 2024, I have collected 255 items from 1980 to 2023 for this bibliography. Each item is given a three figure tag within parenthesis at the end of each entry.

A recent contributor to anti-LTTE literature is Dr. Malkanthi Hettiarachchi, a protégé of Dr. Rohan Gunaratna [see items 249 and 253 below]. Two weeks ago, I sent her an email soliciting answers to a few questions. These were, as follows:

“Hello Dr. Malkanthi Hettiarachchi,

Greetings from Tokyo. I have been reading a couple of your papers on Sri Lanka’s Tamil Tigers rehabilitation program. And I got this email link of yours, after checking your Macquarie University PhD thesis of 2017.

I have a few questions to you. I’d appreciate if you can respond to the following questions.

    1. Are you fluent in Tamil language – reading, writing and speaking? So as not to mask my identity, I’m a Tamil speaker.
    2. How did you gather information from the rehabilitation program participants, who were mostly Tamil speaking?
    3. What was the allocated budget for this Rehabilitation program? I did watch the Youtube presentation of yours, dated Aug 10, 2012. You don’t mention, this vital information for academics like us.
    4. Is this program still underway (as of 2024 fiscal year), or had been assigned for closure, with the departure of Mahinda Rajapaksa from presidency?
    5. In the footnote 12 of your 2018 paper, it is mentioned, ‘ The Lakshman Kadirgamar Institute is named after Mr Kadirgamar, a lawyer and statesman of Tamil heritage. He was the Sri Lankan foreign minister when assassinated on 25 August 2005, by an LTTE sniper…’

Malkanthi, are you SURE about this assassination? Has it been proved in a court? If so, will you provide any reference please. You should not provide details, simply based on questionable assumptions.

I look forward to hearing from you.”

To my regret, as of now, I haven’t heard from this lady!



W.I.Siriweera: Recent developments in Sinhala-Tamil relations. Asian Survey, Sept 1980; 20(9): 903-913. [001]


Bryan Pfaffenberger: The cultural dimension of Tamil separatism in Sri Lanka. Asian Survey, Nov 1981; 21(11): 1145-1157. [002]

Shelton U Kodikara: The separatist Eelam movement in Sri Lanka, an overview. India Quarterly (Delhi), 1981; 37(2): 194-212. [003]


Bruce Matthews: District development councils in Sri Lanka. Asian Survey, Nov 1982; 22(11): 1117-1134. [004]


Bryan Pfaffenberger: Fourth world colonialism, indigenous minorities and Tamil separatism in Sri Lanka. Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, 1984; 16(1): 15-22. [005]

Nancy Murrayj: The state against the Tamils (Ceylon). Race & Class (London), 1984; 26(1): 97-110. [006]

H.A.I. Goonetileke: July 1983 and the national question in Sri Lanka – a bibliographical guide. Race & Class (London), 1984; 26(1): 159-193. [007]


Robert N Kearney: Ethnic conflict and the Tamil separatist movement in Sri Lanka. Asian Survey, 1985; 25(9): 89-917. [008]

Wolfgang E. Mildenberger: Im tunnel des hasses Historisches zum singhalesisch-tamilischen gegensatz.[In the tunnel of hate, historical information on the Sinhala-Tamil conflict]. Schweizer Monatshefte fur Politik (Zurich), 1985; 65(9): 723-729. [009]

Vasundara Mohan: The ethnic tangle in Sri Lanka. Asian Profile (Hongkong), Dec 1985; 13(6): 523-529. [010]

Mohammad Humayun Kabier: Crisis management – a case study of Tamil crisis in Sri Lanka. Regional Studies (Cambridge), 1985; 4(1): 88-103. [011]

Partha S. Ghosh: Ethnic and religious conflicts in South Asia. Conflict Studies (London), 1985; 178: 1-19. [012]


Robert N. Kearney: Sri Lanka in 1985 – the persistence of conflict. Asian Survey, Feb 1986; 26(2): 219-223. [013]

Bruce Matthews: Radical conflict and the rationalization of violence in Sri Lanka. Pacific Affairs, spring 1986; 59(1): 28-44. [014]

Dagmar Hellmann-Rajanayagam: The Tamil Tigers in northern Sri Lanka – origins, factions, programmes. Internationales Asienforum (Cologne), May 1986; 17(1-2): 63-85. [015]

Gabriel Bertinetto: Sul future di Sri Lanka l’ombra della questione tamil [On the future of Sri Lanka, the shadow of the Tamil problem]. Politica Internazionale (Roma), June 1986; 14(6): 12-18 (in Italian) [016]

K.V.Nagarajan: Troubled paradise – ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka. Conflict (New York), 1986; 6(4): 333-353. [017]


Robert N. Kearney: Ethnic conflict and the Tamil separatist movement in Sri Lanka. Asian Survey, Feb 1987; 27(2): 155-162. [018]

Bryan Pfaffenberger: Sri Lanka in 1986 – a nation at the crossroads. Asian Survey, Feb 1987; 27(2): 181-193. [019]

Pierre Morizot: La question Tamoule [The Tamil question]. L’Afrique et l’Asia Modernes (Paris), 1987; no. 152, 60-71. [020]

Penelope Willis: The Tamils – recent events in Sri Lanka. Asian Affairs (London), 1987; 18(2): 176-180. [021]

Lakshmanan Sabaratnam: The boundaries of the state and the state of ethnic boundaries – Sinhala-Tamil relation in Sri Lankan history. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 1987; 10(3): 291-316. [022]

Robert N. Kearney: Territorial elements of Tamil separatism in Sri Lanka. Pacific Affairs (New York), winter 1987-1988; 60(4): 561-577. [023]


Bryan Paffenberger: Sri Lanka in 1987 – Indian intervention and resurgence of the JVP. Asian Survey, Feb 1988; 28(2): 137-147. [024]

  1. Venkateshwar Rao: Ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka – India’s role and perception. Asian Survey, Apr 1988; 28(4): 419-436. [025]

Kumar Rupesinger: Ethnic conflicts in South Asia – The case of Sri Lanka and the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF). Journal of Peace Research, Dec 1988; 25(4): 337-350. [026]

Yuri Vinogradov: Conflict in Sri Lanka. International Affairs (Moscow), 1988; 4(4): 68-73. [027]

Dagmar Hellmann-Rajanayagam: The Tamil militants – Before the Accord and After. Pacific Affairs (New York), winter 1988-1989; 61(4): 603-619. [028]


Bruce Matthews: Sri Lanka in 1988 – seeds of the Accord. Asian Survey, Feb 1989; 29(2): 229-235. [029]

Shantha K Hennaayake: The Peace Accord and the Tamils in Sri Lanka. Asian Survey, April 1989; 29(4): 401-415. [030]

Shelton U Kodikara: The continuing crisis in Sri Lanka: The JVP, the Indian troops, and Tamil politics. Asian Survey, July 1989; 29(7): 716-724. [031]

Ray C. Oberst: Political decay in Sri Lanka. Current History, Dec 1989; 88: 425-428 and 448-449. [032]

Dagmar Hellmann-Rajanayagam: Elections and the Tamil crisis in Sri Lanka – results and impacts. Internationales AsienForum (Koln), 1989; 20(3-4): 209-230 [033]


Amita Shastri: The material basis for separation: The Tamil Eelam movement in Sri Lanka. Journal of Asian Studies, Feb 1990; 49(1): 56-77. [034]

Bruce Matthews: Sri Lanka in 1989 – Peril and Good luck. Asian Survey, Feb 1990; 30(2): 144-149. [035]

Bryan Pfaffenberger: The political construction of defensive nationalism: the 1968 temple entry crisis in Northern Sri Lanka. Journal of Asian Studies, Feb 1990; 49(1): 78-96. [036]

Marshall R. Singer: New realities in Sri Lankan politics. Asian Survey, Apr 1990; 30(4): 409-425. [037]

Mark Juergensmeyer: What the Bhikku said; Reflections on the rise of militant religious nationalism. Religion, 1990; 20: 53-75. [038]


Sarath Amunugama: Buddhaputra and Bhumiputra? Dilemmas of modern Sinhala Buddhist monks in relation to ethnic and political conflict. Religion, 1991; 21: 115-139. [039]

Marshall R Singer: Sri Lanka in 1990 – The ethnic strife continues. Asian Survey, Feb 1991; 31(2): 140-145. [040]

Devin T. Hagerty: India’s regional security doctrine. Asian Survey, April 1991; 31(4): 351-363. [041]

Walter K. Anderson: India’s 1991 elections – the uncertain verdict. Asian Survey, Oct 1991; 31(10): 976-989. [042]

Qadri Ismail: Boys will be boys – gender and national agency in Frantz Fanon and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. South Asia Bulletin (Albany, NY), 1991; 11(1-2): 79-83. [043]


Marshall R Singer: Sri Lanka in 1991 – Some surprising twists. Asian Survey, Feb 1992; 32(2): 168-174. [044]

Ray C. Oberst: A war without winners in Sri Lanka. Current History, Mar 1992; 91: 128-131. [045]

Marshall R Singer: Sri Lanka’s Tamil-Sinhalese ethnic conflict – alternative solutions. Asian Survey, 1992; 32(8): 712-722. [046]

Peter Schalk: ‘Birds of Independence’ – On the participation of Tamil women in armed struggle. Lanka, 1992; 7: 44-142. [047]

Shantha K Hennayake: Interactive ethnonationalism – an alternative explanation of minority ethnonationalism. Political Geography, Nov 1992; 11(6): 526-549. [048]


Lisa Morris Grobar and Shiranthi Gnanaselvam: The economic effects of the Sri Lankan civil war. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Jan 1993; 41(2): 395-405. [049]

Shantha K Hennayake: Sri Lanka in 1992 – Opportunity missed in the ethno-nationalist crisis. Asian Survey, Feb 1993; 33(2): 157-164. [050]


Gamini Keerawella and Rohan Samarajiva: Sri Lanka in 1993 – Eruptions and flow. Asian Survey, Feb 1994; 34(2): 168-174. [051]

Peter Schalk: Women fighters of the Liberation Tigers of Tamililam – the martial feminism of Atel Palacinkam. South Asia Research, 1994; 14: 163-183. [052] A Samarasinghe: The 1994 parliamentary elections in Sri Lanka – a vote for good governance. Asian Survey, Dec 1994; 34(12): 1019-1034. [053]

D.J. Somasundaram and S. Sivayokan: War trauma in a civilian population. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1994; 165: 524-527. [054]


Gamini Keerawella and Rohan Samarajiva: Sri Lanka in 1994 – a mandate for peace. Asian Survey, Feb 1995; 35(2): 153-159. [055]

Howard B Schaffer: The Sri Lankan elections of 1994 – The Chandrika Factor. Asian Survey, May 1995; 35(5): 409-425. [056]

Bryan Pfaffenberger: The structure of protracted conflict – the case of Sri Lanka. Humboldt Journal of Social Relations, 1995; 20(2): 121-147. [057]


Howard B Schaffer: Sri Lanka in 1995 – a difficult and disappointing year. Asian Survey, Feb 1996; 36(2): 216-223. [058]

Bruce Matthews: Radical conflict and the rationalization of violence in Sri Lanka. Pacific Affairs, spring 1996; 59(1): 28-44. [059]

Michael Roberts: Filial devotion in Tamil culture and the Tiger cult of martyrdom. Contributions to Indian Sociology, July-Dec 1996; 30(2): 245-272. [060]

Marshall R Singer: Sri Lanka’s ethnic conflict – Have bombs shattered hopes for peace. Asian Survey, Nov 1996; 36(11): 1146-1155. [061]


Peter Schalk: Historization of the martial ideology of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies, 1997; 20: 1-38.[062]

Peter Schalk: The revival of martyr cults among Ilavar. Temenos, 1997; 33: 151-190. [063]

14 Sri Lankan doctors working in Britain: Sri Lankan refugees are not at risk of persecution. British Medical Journal, Mar 22, 1997; 314: 905. [064]

  1. Pothalingam: Ethnic cleansing is in progress. British Medical Journal, July 12, 1997; 315: 122-123. [065]

A Sri Lankan born British citizen: Tamils have become soft targets. British Medical Journal, July 12, 1997; 315: 123. [066]

A Sri Lankan working in Britain: Comments are like those of white South Africans ot so long ago. British Medical Journal, July 12, 1997; 315: 123. [067]

Duncan Forrest, Gill Hinshellwood, Michael Peel, Gordon Barclay and Derek Summerfield: Refugee Council’s assessment of human rights situation in Sri Lanka is accurate. British Medical Journal, July 12, 1997; 315: 123. [068]

  1. Ratneswaran and 99 other Sri Lankan doctors: Government denies legitimate rights of minorities. British Medical Journal, July 12, 1997; 315: 123-124. [069]
  2. Rajayogeswaran and 11 other Sri Lankan doctors: Tamils are victims of unjust politics, not economic refugees. British Medical Journal, July 12, 1997; 315: 124. [070]

Margaret Trawick: Reasons for violence; a preliminary ethnographic account of the LTTE. South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies, sp. Issue 1997; 20: 153-180. [071]


Philip Stevenson: Batticaloa – war surgery continues in Sri Lanka. Lancet, Apr 4, 1998; 351: 1039. [072]

J.D.Rogers, J. Spencer and J Uyangoda: Sri Lanka – political violence and ethnic conflict. American Psychologist, July 1998; 53(7): 771-777. [073]

Kristian Stokke: Sinhalese and Tamil nationalism as post-colonial political projects from ‘above’, 1948-1983. Political Geography, 1998; 17(1): 83-113. [074]


Dagmar Hellmann-Rajanayagam: The conflict in Sri Lanka and its implications for South Asian and regional security. Akademika (Malaysia), Jan 1999; 54: 131-136. [075]

Tessa Bartholomeusz: In defense of Dharma – Just-war ideology in Buddhist Sri Lanka. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 1999; 6: 1-16. [076]

Tessa Bartholomeusz: Mothers of Buddhas, mothers of nations – Kumaratunga and her meteoric rise to power in Sri Lanka (Prime Minister Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga). Feminist Studies, spring 1999; 25(1): 211-225. [077]

Welsh J: Sri Lanka – torture continues. Lancet, July 31, 1999; 354: 420. [078]

A.J. Christopher: New states in a new millennium. Area, 1999; 31(4): 327-334. [079]

Robin Coningham and Nick Lewer: Paradise lost – the bombing of the Temple of the Tooth; a UNESCO World Heritage site in Sri Lanka. Antiquity, Dec 1999; 73: 857-866. [080]

Paikiasothy Saravanamuttu: Sri Lanka in 1999 – The challenge of peace, governance, and development. Asian Survey, Jan-Feb 2000; 40(1): 219-225. [081]

Lionel Paul: Le Question Tamoule a Sri Lanka. [The Tamil question in Sri Lanka] Guerres modiales et conflits contemporains, Sept 1999, no. 195: 97-114. [082]


Neil DeVotta: Control democracy, institutional decay and the quest for Eelam: Explaining ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka. Pacific Affairs, spring 2000; 73(1): 55-76. [083]

Nithiyanandan: Ethnic politics and Third World development – Some lessons from Sri Lanka’s experience. Third World Quarterly, April 2000; 21(2): 283-311. [084]

Ehud Sprinzak: Rational fanatics. Foreign Policy, Sept-Oct 2000; no. 120: 66-73. [085]

Peter Meade and Jaes Mirocha: Civilian landmine injuries in Sri Lanka. Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection and Critical Care, 2000; 48(4): 735-739. [086]

Jonathan Goodhand, David Hulme and Nick Lewer: Social capital and the political economy of violence: A case study of Sri Lanka. Disasters, 2000; 24(4): 390-406. [087]

Mark Phythian: The illicit arms trade – Cold War and post-Cold War. Crime, Law & Social Change, 2000; 33: 1-52. [088]


Lawrence Saez: Sri Lanka in 2000 – The politics of despair. Asian Survey, Jan-Feb 2001; 41(1): 116-121. [089]

Yamuna Sangarasivam: Researcher, Informant, ‘Assassin’, Me. Geographical Review, Jan-Apr 2001; 91(1/2): 95-104. [090]

Harendra de Silva, Chris Hobbs and Helga Hanks: Conscription of children in armed conflict – a form of child abuse. A study of 19 former child soldiers. Child Abuse Review, 2001; 10: 125-134. [091]

Ananda Abeyesekara: The saffron army, violence, terror(ism): Buddhism, identity and difference in Sri Lanka. Numen, 2001; 48(1): 1-46. [092]

Gyan Pradhan: Economic cost of Sri Lanka’s ethnic conflict. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 2001; 31(3): 375-384. [093]


Bruce Hoffman: A nasty business. Atlantic Monthly, Jan 2002; 289(1): 49-52. [094]

Amitha Shastri: Sri Lanka in 2001 – Year of reversals. Asian Survey, Jan-Feb 2002; 42(1): 177-182. [095]

Silove, Z.Steel, P. McGorry, V. Miles, and J. Drobny: The impact of torture on post-traumatic stress symptoms in war-affected Tamil refugees and immigrants. Comparative Psychiatry, Jan-Feb 2002; 43(1): 49-55. [096]

Kaz de Jong, Maureen Mulhern, Nathan Ford, Isabel Simpson, Alison Swan and Saskia van der Kam: Psychological trauma of the civil war in Sri Lanka. Lancet, Apr 27, 2002; 359: 1517-1518. [097]

Daya Somasundaram: Child soldiers: understanding the context. British Medical Journal, May 26, 2002; 324: 1268-1271. [098]

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Nimmi Gowrinathan: The committed female fighter – the political identities of Tamil women in the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 2017; 19(3): 327-341. [247]

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Malkanthi Hettiarachchi: Rehabilitation to deradicalise detainees and inmates – a counter-terrorism strategy. Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism, 2018; 13(2): 267-283. [249]


Sanghamitra Mookherjee: Love Marriage – Women in Sri Lankan civil war. Journal of Women’s Studies, Dec 2020; 9: 43-50. [250]

Takeshi Aida: Revisiting suicide rate during war time – Evidence from the Sri Lankan civil war. PLoS ONE 2020; 15(10): e0240487. [251]


Rachel Seoighe: Reimagining narratives of resistance: memory work in the London Tamil diaspora. State Crime Journal, 2021; 9(2): 169-195. [252]

Angel Gomez, Mercedes Martinez, Francois Alexi Martel, Lucia Lopez-Rodriguez, Alexandra Vazquez, Juana Chinchilla, Borja Parades, Mal Hettiarachchi, Nafees Hamid and William B. Swan: Why people enter and embrace violent groups. Frontiers in Psychology, Jan 7, 2021; 11: 614657. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.614657. [253]


William Affleck, Umaharan Thamotharampillai and Devon Hinton: Walking Corpse syndrome –a trauma-related idiom of distress amongst Sri Lankan Tamils. Transcultural Psychiatry, 2022; 59(4): 448-460. [254]


A.R.M. Imtiaz and Amjad Mohamed Saleem: Some critical notes on Sri Lankan Muslim religious identity formation, conservatism and violent extremism. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 2023; 58(3): 438-451. [255]

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