Polymath Charles Santiapillai (1944-2014) Remembered

by Sachi Sri Kantha, August 30, 2016

Charles Santiapillai, a brilliant Tamil zoologist of our generation, died on October 29, 2014. It is a pity that I came to know about his death only early this year. Quite a few appreciations about his career and character did appear in a few journals (listed at the end of this remembrance). Charles distinguished himself as a mammalian biologist publishing research papers on many larger mammals, and became a world renowned expert on Asian elephants. Apart from this, he also had a passion for history in general, and particularly that of science personalities. Polymath Charles was adept in writing obituary note, memoriam and eulogy on elite scientists and to those with whom he was fortunate to be acquainted. Most of these appeared in the Current Science (Bangalore) journal.

Charles SantiapillaiFor a short period, between November 2006 and January 2007, Charles and I exchanged eight emails. Of course, I first came to know Charles in 1977, when I moved to the University of Peradeniya from Colombo. He was older to me by 9 years. In those days, he was like a slender bean pole and not flabby as in his late years (as seen in the photo, presented nearby).

I present the email exchange I had with Charles in chronological order. With propriety, I have deleted passing references to third persons, without losing syntax of the communication. Dr. Shanmugasundaram Wijeyamohan (a junior colleague of Charles), who is introduced in the first email I wrote to Charles, is a kin of mine. The mails I received from Charles present the inner sentiments of Santiapillai, the polymath. I have no doubt that he might have found it difficult to share these thoughts publicly. As Charles was an elephant expert, I was waiting for a chance to ask about his field observation on elephant sleep, about which nothing much is known, even now. Charles did provide his answer on my question in one of the mails.

In the earlier mails, Charles did appreciate my thoughts and writings in diverse areas. But, towards the end of the email exchange, Charles did castigate me for criticizing the appointment of Prof. Ratnajeevan Hoole to the Vice Chancellor position of the University of Jaffna (see below, email item 7 without any omission!). This also indicated that the academic stature of Prof. S.R.H. Hoole was valued among some Tamil academics. I did send my lengthy response for his criticism (see below, email item 8 for an abridged version). It is unfortunate that I never heard from Charles after that.

I was least bothered by the criticism from Charles, because I took it as a different opinion from a valued friend. It is a pity that I couldn’t meet him face to face to clarify our divergent thoughts on the ‘Hoole drama’. Without any rancor, I present Charles’s criticism of me here, for three specific reasons; (1) It is a valued opinion of my late friend. (2) It also adds to the style of writing Charles could engage in (with Hemingway-style pungent profanities!) with pals, which we cannot find in his published scientific papers. (3) It also provides a balance to my penchant criticism of Prof. Hoole, in this website.

I’d add that Charles was mistaken about my criticism of Prof. Ratnajeevan Hoole. In my writings, I never criticized the academic stature of Prof. Hoole in his chosen field. What I criticized was his sycophancy to politicians towards achieving his goal. In hindsight, it appears that Prof. Hoole carries a dubious honor to be the only academic in Sri Lanka, who was kicked BOTH by Velupillai Prabhakaran and Mahinda Rajapaksa!

In this belated memoriam, I also provide the scientific bibliography of Santiapillai’s 35 publications, which have not been presented in other appreciations. Apart from this list, I also counted over 30 publications of varied types (original papers, reviews, bibliographies, book reviews, editorial comments) having Santiapillai’s name as sole author or co-author in the Gajah journal, specifically devoted to Asian elephants. This material on Asian elephants is beyond the scope of this memoriam and deserves a separate contribution.


  • From Sachi to Charles – November 2nd, 2006.

Dear Dr. Santiapillai,

Hope you will not mind receiving this mail from m. On Oct. 1st, I met your junior colleague Wijeyamohan in Tokyo for an hour or so and exchanged information of mutual interest within the limited time. He also handed to me, a copy of Gajah which you had given to him, for passing to me. Thanks a lot for your kindness. (Gajah is the bi-annual journal of the Asian Elephant Specialist Group – Sachi)

To backtrack in time, I certainly know you, but I think you may not recollect my face. I was at Peradeniya from 1977 to 1981. I had then come from Colombo, after completing my B.Sc. Special degree at the University of Colombo (I was a disciple of Ms. Mano Sabaratnam, in entomology then (to follow a one year M.Sc. course at the PostGraduate Institute of Agriculture). In our batch, H.A.S. Perera was my colleague and he introduced me to you a couple of times. After completing my M.Sc. at PGI, I joined the Department of Biochemistry as a temporary assistant lecturer (when Prof. Tommy Wikramanayake was the professor and head of the department) and continued in that position till 1981, before I left for my Ph.D. studies at the University of Illinois.

I have been in Japan since 1986, with a two year absence, during which I was in Medical College of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, for my second postdoctoral phase. Though out of the island for the past 25 years, I have been keenly following your research contributions avidly in various journals, and also your contributions to the Current Science. I have been at the Kyoto University – Primate Research Institute, as visiting professor since 2002. My research here is focused on sleep behavior of four species of New World monkeys, which I find fascinating. Of course, I have never had an opportunity to visit South America yet! That is another story to tell.

Wijeyamohan had let me know that you had read some of my papers (from the compilation of two anthologies which I handed to him) with interest. For your keeping, I send complimentary copies of these to you next week. Again, sorry for being late in touching bases with you. Best regards.

Sachi Sri Kantha


  • From Charles to Sachi – November 2nd, 2006

Dear Sachi,

Thank you ever so much for remembering me and sending me such a kind e-mail to introduce yourself to me. Yes, I do remember you, though it is many, many years ago that we must have met. Yes, H.A.S. Perera was one of our students and now the penny has dropped indeed.

I must say that I was completely bowled over by the size and intensity of your communications, both scientific and social. You must indeed be one of the few prolific communicators, and I thoroughly enjoyed your writing style, which is easy and without pedantry. How did you find time to write so much and also carry out postgraduate research? The problem with many of our academics is that they do not communicate with the public, and seem to be content to live in their ivory towers. I also accessed the internet and was able to read the compilations of yours especially on the Jaffna Library and its tragic end in the hands of a few politicians, who despite a good college education and family connections, still could not help behaving like true jackasses. This only proves that you cannot send an ass abroad, hoping that it would come back a horse!

I have also discussed the political situation with Wijeyamohan, who is one of the innovative biologists I have come across. He is also a through gentleman down to his fingertips. I am now convinced that the Sinhala government will NEVER (large case letters, as in the original – Sachi) act in a fair and just manner towards every citizen. This means that Tamils will never be able to resolve their centuries old conflict through civilized discourse. You might as well teach primatology to primates. It is as futile as looking for a mare’s egg. Thus the alternative is frightening to say the least. When the guerrillas are fighting for dominates their minds more than what they are fighting against. It is this problem that makes the end of the civil war in Sri Lanka seem so far away and remote. The print media is so biased that you need to read at least three papers to get any sense of the actual.

Buddhism, which is a wonderful philosophy and religion, is being manipulated by some maniacal monks who are nothing other than bald-headed Talebans in yellow robes. I see no difference between the Talebans and the Buddhist monks in Sri Lanka, as far as intolerance is concerned. I sometimes think that God gave many Sinhala politicians their brains by mistake. A spinal cord would have been enough, since they do not think. They simply do what they have always done, conning the nation, automatically. There is nothing but hope for Tamils; dreams are expensive. Those lucky ones have already left Sri Lanka or dead. Leaving Sri Lanka today, the lucky Tamils must be feeling the way the Brits must have felt when they left India; exhausted and relieved.

I was mildly amused to read your epithet (wimp) for Arudpragasam. It is very apt. [Ms] Mano [Sabaratnam] had balls.

Hope your research is going well. Thanks a lot once again. With all best wishes.



  • From Sachi to Charles – November 8th, 2006

Dear Charles,

Thanks a lot for your kind response of Nov. 2nd to my previous mail. 6 days have passed and sorry for the delay in getting back to you. This is to let you know, that today morning, I have posted to you a thick envelope by airmail, which contains the following items: (1) my autobiography vol. 1, Tears and Cheers; (2) two of the printed anthologies of my single-authored papers in history of science up to 2002; and (3) reprints/photocopies of my papers published since 2002. Hope you enjoy keeping these items in your bookshelf. I thought that I’ll first post these items to you, before responding to your mail.

I do agree with your thoughts expressed in your mail, relating to the publishing routine of our ‘narrow-focused academics’. Thanks for your kind compliments on my range. Its nice to receive these from one’s peers, which serves as tonic for rejuvenation. I have always followed my own rhythm and path for originality and that explains my voracious interest in science disciplines from astronomy to zoology. For the specific reason you mention about the ‘narrow-focus of our academics’, I have to compensate. And I also enjoy reading your contributions in the wider range of topics in zoology and other themes. Not only scientists, our tribe also lack capable historians and social critics who can come forward to express themselves with some courage. So, I have to compensate for this deficit as well.

Since you are an elephant expert, hope you’ll enlighten me on this query. I have been curious about elephant sleep in the wild. Do you know, (field observation, or from original literature), how many hours elephants sleep in a 24 h period? I have come across one or two papers (by Irene Tobler, of University of Zurich, who has measured elephant sleep in zoo elephants and circus elephants) which have been published. But, I’m interested in knowing what is the recorded sleep data for wild elephants. Also, can you let know how I can get the past issues of Gajah journal? Best wishes.



  • From Charles to Sachi – November 8th, 2006

Dear Sachi,

Many thanks in advance for sending me copies of your publications. I will enjoy reading them. As far as sleep in elephants is concerned, my experience from Sumatra is that they DO sleep in the wild and in captivity. But they could do so standing as well as lying down. Much of the sleep takes place from 11 pm to 3 am. But all except the very young, sleep lightly and at the slightest disturbance would be on their feet. In the wild, I have seen specific areas that are used by elephants to lie down and rest or sleep. The grasses are flattened and the area is extensive if a herd had used it. Elephants do not sleep continuously, but they seem to get sufficient sleep standing up as well.

It is a bit difficult to be sure if an animal is sleeping while standing up. It is a bit like our teacher in school, who had the uncanny ability to sleep with his eyes wide open. One never knew if he was wide awake or fast asleep. So, we usually send a trial balloon, before getting into any mischief. Cheers.



  • From Charles to Sachi – November 16th, 2006

Dear Sachi,

Many grateful thanks to you for sending me your publications, which are truly amazing, given the breadth and depth of the subjects you have covered. I will read them during my leisure hours.

You need not worry about calling me Charles. That’s the way I prefer people to call me, and not by my title. I rarely use it as I feel that Professor is such a loaded term that I do not qualify for that august position yet. These days, there are many academics but hardly any intellectual, who thinks.

I was fortunate to study under the late Prof. Hilary Cruz, who was an extremely gifted teacher and a committed researcher. It was he who advised me to keep a note book at all times (a vade mecum) so that I could jot down some of the important articles and news items that I read. I still carry one.

The political scene in Sri Lanka is going from bad to worse. If recent history has taught us anything, it is that we can kill anyone in Sri Lanka. The law and common sense seem to have parted company many decades ago. The future for all Sri Lankans under this government looks very dim and bleak indeed.

Thank you once again. With all best wishes.



  • From Sachi to Charles – January 17th , 2007

Dear Charles,

Thanks for your mail of Nov. 16th. Two months have galloped. By regular air-mail, I sent a post card New Year greeting to you. You might have received it already, or you’ll get it late this week, or early next week. I have been wanting to keep in touch regularly. Hope I’ll do it this year.

I appreciate your comments on the range of my publication canvas. You may have read it, but I remember reading it (should have been by Peter Medawar, I suppost most probably, or by Julian Huxley), that zoology provides the solid grounding for such a wider canvas of perspectives, than any other discipline, and I find that this is true from the writings of eminent British/American/European scientists of 19th century and until mid-20th century, before the birth of molecular biology. This is of cause, a ‘self congratulatory’ pat on one’s back.

As you have sensed, I’m really interested in the history/sociology of science and have been gathering information for a wider scan on the 20th century science in Sri Lanka – personalities, politics, publications, etc. The canvas is wide, but none have touched this theme, to the best of my knowledge. You mentioning about Prof. Cruz is timely. I have known his name and reputation since when I became an undergraduate. But I hardly have his biographical profile.

The last item for this mail, is linked with my database collection for the above-stated ‘20th Century Science in Sri Lanka’ project. I gather that there is a National Academy of Science with a membership of nearly 120. I wonder why you have not been included in this group. Is it politics (as usual)? Why you have been omitted in this Academy? Rest later. Best regards.



  • From Charles to Sachi – January 20th , 2007

Dear Sachi,

Thank you for your email. I’m sorry to let you know that both Wijeyamohan and  found your scurrilous article on Prof. Hoole extremely disturbing and derogatory to read. It was like standing in a wind tunnel of cloacal abuse.

Prof. Hoole is an extremely bright and talented professor, respected by everyone, except a few Tamils. We are fast losing men (& women) of intellect, ability, dignity and integrity among Tamils in Sri Lanka, largely through our own inability to distinguish sheep from goats. Wijeyamohan and I know Prof. Hoole well, and we have always had the highest respect for him as a brilliant scientist, a kind gentleman and a fearless human being. His departure from Sri Lanka is a loss not only for the Tamils, but to the entire nation. People of Prof. Hoole’s experience and intellect are as rare as teeth in hens in Sri Lanka.

Had our people accepted Prof. Hoole as the Vice Chancellor, the University of Jaffna would have had a chance of emerging from years of academic hibernation, to be counted as one of the best in Sri Lanka. But we blew it through our own stupidity. We are so feeble and petty minded that we reject men (& women) of ability and intelligence, and instead are content to be surrounded by mediocrity. There was a time when Jaffna was thought to be the brain of Ceylon; today, it has become the bleeding arse-hole of Sri Lanka. Sadly, the University of Jaffna has not achieved excellence that was expected of its academic community. A fish rots from head downwards. We need men of vision and ability to man our institutions of higher learning. Without vision, we will perish (so says the Bible). We need the right people for the job. A cornet player needs all his teeth, while a boxer doesn’t. Likewise, our universities need men of brilliance and international recognition to impart education to our best and the brightest. There is no room for mediocrity in education. If you appoint a second class man, he will recruit third class staff. Mediocrity breeds mediocrity.

There are too many people poking their noses into affairs that do not concern them and making a total dog’s of the whole thing in education in Jaffna. Ultimately, it is the students who will suffer. The difference between the students of University of Jaffna and the products of Lever Brothers, is that the former breathe. We are our own destroyers. We are not happy unless we are miserable and make others miserable as well. The immense power of the negative that weighs on us from birth to death is a terrible curse to bear. We are unable to give our students the best in education. If recent history has taught us anything in Jaffna, it is that we can compete for mediocrity. Like medieval Royals with syphilis, we seem to have gone suddenly stark, raving mad in Jaffna. We are doomed and your article has confirmed our fears.

It was the Roman historian Tacitus who wrote, ‘I never regretted being silent, but always regretted having talked.’

Prof. Hoole has not done you any harm, and so your unkindly portrayal of him is rather difficult for us to comprehend. I think you owe Prof. Hoole a public apology.

Yours truly,



  • From Sachi to Charles – January 20th , 2007 [A six page reply sent by Sachi is abridged here, for relevance. Abridged sections are indicated by dots.]

Dear Charles,

I appreciate if you could please read this mail completely. Thanks for your prompt response, which I read with much interest. I appreciate your candor in telling what you have felt on my quarrel with Jeevan Hoole. I’m afraid that you are not aware of the whole story behind this issue, and its my obligation to let you know some background.

I agree with you that Hoole has a stellar record in academia and publications in his specialty. And his services in Jaffna would have added something of value to the Tamil community. But, its his other ‘social deficiencies’ and vanity which I have criticized in my two pieces written last year. I’d appreciate if you could read the entire text of my two pieces.

  • On Academic Politics and Religious Zealotry (sangam site, April 16, 2006)
  • A Tale of Two Vice Chancellors (sangam site, Nov. 22, 2006).

In both these commentaries/satire, I have not touched or questioned anything about his academic suitability or publication record. Quite many renowned scientists of past were excellent in their research specialties. But, when they step out of their specialty, they make a fool of themselves. A well known example was William Shockley – the co-discoverer of transistor – who made a fool of himself when he tried to be the spokesman for eugenics. Hoole has two serious defects as an institution builder. First, his evangelical Christianity and his belief that there is a plot by Hindus against him, his family and his beliefs. Secondly, his thin skin for receiving criticism (which was the point, I made as toad/amphibian skin in my satirical piece). I’d add a third defect, which is his sycophancy to ruling politicians whoever they are (Chandrika, Kadirgamar and now Mahinda), which were clearly illustrated in his diatribe against me. I have been called variously ‘vain charlatan’, ‘plagiarist’, my publication record is a ‘hoax’….

If you have been following my writings, this year marks my 30th anniversary of contributions to English popular press in Sri Lanka, Hongkong, Japan, New York and London. I have been a vigorous correspondent on ethnic issue; my views have been defended by the meek, but mostly my views have been criticized in the then Tribune (Colombo), then in Lanka Guardian, Asiaweek, Far Eastern Economic Review, Japanese dailies by non-Tamils. I take it all in the spirit of open exchange of ideas, opinions. But Hoole is altogether a different kettle of fish….I have heard about some scientists fabricating their own publication record, but this is the first time I have come across that Hoole fabricating the publication record of another scientist (that is, me). And his unliterary language – makes one wonder if this is how he evaluates any candidate’s resume. He suffers from so many complexes – persecution complex, inferiority complex, delusions of grandeur complex….

I have attacked in writing his career as a closet politician and fart catcher to the Cabinet idiots. He calls me a ‘terrorist suspect’ (which even my Sinhalese critics like H.L.D. Mahindapala has never uttered!). Why he has to call me as a ‘terrorist suspect’ – just to curry favor from his political patron? He cannot distinguish metaphors, similes, multiple meanings of common phrases. And most importantly, he cannot even know what is plagiarism?….

He had called me ‘plagiarist’ for translating the neuroanatomical atlas from Japanese to English. And would any sane person would tell this, without checking the facts? The publisher of the reference book was Oxford University Press (OUP). I was commissioned by the OUP. They paid me, quite a handy sum of 500,000 yen (i.e., $5,000, at the then currency exchange rate) to complete the work in six months. As of now, the best contract I had received for work in this area. I worked hard, with the assistance of my wife, to do the job perfectly to their satisfaction, and this SOB now writes that I’m a ‘plagiarist’.

About my translation skills [that is from my third language Japanese to the second language English, in which I have gained native level recognition – for which I was specifically commissioned by the Oxford University Press – what does this Hoole know which the OUP’s commissioning editors didn’t know?….

Every sentence Hoole had written about my record seems to prove to me, that he is not a worthy ‘scholar’ as he brags to be, but only a sycophant of Mahinda, and tries to save his absentee job as VC for Jaffna University. Sorry to state this, I completely disagree with you on this issue of whether Hoole would have made a good VC for Jaffna University.

Finally, I let you know why I wrote that second piece, ‘Tale of Two Vice Chancellors’. It is morally wrong, for Hoole to hold onto the VC position (with a dog in the manger attitude), after escaping to USA and gloating about he being the VC of Jaffna University. Either he should have had the balls to go to Jaffna and work, or quit the position and run to USA. He cannot both ‘have the cake and eat it’ as well. It’s a pathetic display of vanity, and I stand by my criticism.

Opposed to your view, I feel it is he who should issue public apology for distorting my track record in science…. You are entitled to disagree with me on this issue perfectly. I like to hear from you on other topics which I have mentioned in my previous mail. Best regards.



Appreciations to Dr. Charles Santiapillai

Chaminda S. Wijesundara; Dr. Charles Santiapillai (1944-2014). Ceylon Journal of Science (Bio.Sci), 2014, 43(2), i-ii.

Raman Sukumar; Appreciation – Charles Santiapillai (1944-2014). Gajah, 2014, 41, 41-42.

Sujan M. Henkanaththegedara and Upali S. Amarasinghe; The Man who loved elephants and students; a tribute to Dr. Charles Santiapillai (1944-2014). Taprobanica, 2015, 7(4), 275-276.

Dr. Charles Santiapillai. International Elephant Foundation.Org. Jan.9, 2015.


Mary Babapulle. Late Dr. Charles Valentine Manoranjan Santiapillai – an appreciation. The Island (Colombo), Nov. 22, 2014.


Scientific Bibliography of Charles Santiapillai

  • Balasubramaniam S, Santiapillai C, Chambers MR. Seasonal shifts in the pattern of habitat utilization by the spotted deer (Axis axis Erxleben 1777) in the Ruhuna National Park, Sri Lanka. Spixiana, 1980; 3: 157-166.
  • Santiapillai C, Chambers MR, Ishwaran N. The leopard , Panthera pardus fusca (Meyer 1794) in the Ruhuna National Park, Sri Lanka. Biological Conservation, 1982; 23(1): 5-14.
  • Santiapillai C, Chambers MR, Ishwaran N. Aspects of the ecology of the Asian elephant Elephas maximus L. in the Ruhuna National Park, Sri Lanka. Biological Conservation, 1984; 29(1): 47-61.
  • Ashby KR, Santiapillai C. Deterioration of grazing associated with high densities of herbivores in Ruhuna National Park, Sri Lanka. Acta Zoologica Finnica, 1984; 172: 257-258.
  • Santiapillai C, Suprahman H. The proposed translocation of the Javan rhinoceros Rhinoceros sondaicus. Biological Conservation, 1986; 38(1): 11-19.
  • Santiapillai C. The clouded leopard in Sumatra. Oryx, 1988; 22(1): 44-45.
  • Dorji DP, Santiapillai C. The status, distribution and conservation of the tiger Panthera tigris in Bhutan. Biological Conservation, 1989; 48(4): 311-319.
  • Santiapillai C, Ramono WS. Jungle four-wheel drive. Geographical Magazine, 1992; 64(12): 10-14.
  • Santiapillai C. J.Z. Young (1907-1997) an obituary. Current Science, 1998; 75(3): 325.

(10)Murukesapillai K, Santiapillai C. Srinivasa Ramanujan: a different perception of his life and times. Current Science, 1998; 75(3): 326-327.

(11) Santiapillai C, Suva A, Kariyawasam C, Unantenne V, Wijeyamohan S. Trade in Asian elephant ivory in Sri Lanka. Oryx, 1999; 33(2): 176-180.

(12) Kalugaha HIE, De Silva M, Santiapillai C. A long term study on the dynamics of the elephant (Elephas maximus) population in Ruhuna National Park, Sri Lanka. Biological Conservation, 1999; 89(1): 51-59.

(13) Santiapillai C, Wijeyamohan S, Ashby KR. The ecology of a free-living population of the ass (Equus africanus) at Kalpitiya, Sri Lanka. Biological Conservation, 1999; 91(1): 43-53.

(14) Santiapillai C. Sir Mark Oliphant (1901-2000) an obituary. Current Science, 2000; 79(7): 1022-1023.

(15) Santiapillai C. Abraham Pais: Physicist and biographer (1918-2000). Current Science, 2000; 79(11): 1607-1608.

(16) Santiapillai C, De Silva M. Status, distribution and conservation of crocodiles in Sri Lanka. Biological Conservation, 2001; 97(3): 305-318.

(17) Santiapillai C. Cyril Wace Nicholas (1898-1961): Gentleman, scholar and the first warden of the Wild Life Department, Sri Lanka. Current Science, 2002; 83(11): 1408-1409.

(18) Santiapillai C. The looming threat of smallpox. Current Science, 2003; 84(3): 260-261.

(19) Santiapillai C. Converting dung to dollars to conserve the elephant in Sri Lanka. Current Science, 2003; 84(5): 622-623.

(20) Santiapillai C, Wijeyamohan S. The impact of civil war on wildlife in Sri Lanka. Current Science, 2003; 84(9): 1182-1183.

(21) Santiapillai C. John F. Eisenberg. Current Science, 2003; 85(12): 1802.

(22) Santiapillai C, Jayewardene R. Conservation of the leopard and other carnivores in Sri Lanka. Current Science, 2004; 86(8): 1063-1064.

(23) Vandercone R, Sajithran TM, Wijeyamohan S, Santiapillai C. The status of baobab (Adansonia digitate L.) in Mannar island, Sri Lanka. Current Science, 2004; 87(12): 1709-1713.

(24) Santiapillai C. Hans Bethe (1906-2005). Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka, 2005; 33(1): 57-58.

(25) Santiapillai C. The warming planet. Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka, 2005; 33(4): 233-237.

(26) Santiapillai C. F. Prashantha Amerasinghe (1948-2005). Current Science, 2006; 90(5):

(27) Santiapillai C. Cyril Jeffrey Babapulle (1939-2006). Current Science, 2006; 91(2): 242-243.

(28) Santiapillai C. L. Elizabeth L (Bets) Rasmussen (1938-2006). Current Science, 2006; 91(9): 1273-1274.

(29) Santiapillai C. African elephants: surviving by the skin of their teeth. Current Science, 2009; 97(7): 996-997.

(30) Wijeyamohan S, Read B, Santiapillai C. Obtaining accurate body weights of captive elephants in Sri Lanka. Current Science, 2010; 99(8): 1033-1035.

(31) Santiapillai C, Read B. Would masking the smell of ripening paddy fields help mitigate human-elephant conflict in Sri Lanka? Oryx, 2010; 44(4): 509-511.

(32) Santiapillai C. Warren Ranjithan Breckenridge (1938-2009). Ceylon Journal of Science (Bio Sci), 2010; 39(1): 71-73.

(33) Wijeyamohan S, Sivakumar V, Read B, Krishnakumar S, Santiapillai C. A simple technique to estimate linear body measurements of elephants. Current Science, 2012; 102(1): 26-28.

(34) Santiapillai C, Wijeyamohan S. The first national survey of elephants in Sri Lanka. Current Science, 2013; 105(2): 153-154.

(35) Wijeyamohan S, Treiber K, Schmitt D, Santiapillai C. A visual system for scoring body condition of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Zoo Biology, 2014; 34(1): 53-59.

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